This chapter describes the economic institution of the Networks of Life which manages the power to create money without debts, without being an instrument of submission of peoples through their debts following credits which they must resort to in order to try to live as dignified as possible in the system of liberal capitalist power or other systems of power.
The dossier on the strategic analysis for the establishment of a new full currency.
Our editorial is here summary and goes to the essentials. For the details, the examples, the technical points, we use the dossier on the strategic analysis of a new use of the Full Currency (Positive Money) which presents the conflict between the two cultures that have been fighting since the beginning of the industrial era, the internal diagnosis with the strengths and weaknesses of a Full Currency, the external diagnosis with the opportunities and threats of the environment. This dossier presents an analytical drafting. See the links at the end of this chapter.
Strategic analysis makes it possible to demonstrate to our contemporaries the relevance of reinstating a sovereign currency. It completes and explains this chapter on the economic institution of full Money in the functioning of the Networks of Life, after having abandoned the systems of power.
Without this dossier on the Strategic Analysis of a Sovereign Money, this chapter of the Political Institutions of the Networks of Life took on a substantial volume and the risk of drowning in details or in the numerous illustrations of this subject would have been significant.
Here we present the essentials to understand how the Life Networks and their economic institutions will use their financial resources to ensure their investments and the remuneration of their member citizens.
To begin to understand what a full currency is, without debts, while it remains strictly forbidden by the Anglo-Saxon financial oligarchy that runs the liberal capitalist system of power, we must make the effort to visualize another world, another civilization and carry further the choice of civilization that we presented in the introduction to this essay Our Networks of Life.
Let us forget the labyrinth of the banking system and the creation of money ex nihilo from the credit granted by commercial banks under the control of private central banks, this counterfeit currency and these counterfeiters according to the qualification of Maurice ALLAIS, Nobel Prize in Economics in 1988.
We are here in the functioning of the Life Networks and money is not a central means of controlling the world economy for the benefit of the Anglo-Saxon financial oligarchy. We left the systems of power and chose a civilization that was much more flourishing, humane and just, peaceful. We work in Total Quality with optimal solutions and participatory management.
Characteristics of full currency in Life Networks
Total Quality Funding Needs Assessment
We have just specified this in the Total Quality approach which leads the work on the whole of human activity: the cost of obtaining Total Quality evaluates investments and work, training to minimize and eliminate risks in the state of our current knowledge and according to the optimal solutions obtained by the practice of subsidiarity. This assessment represents a need for financing expressed in money and obviously the Life Networks do not use money as in the liberal capitalist system of power.
The function of a full currency in Life Networks
The function of money is to facilitate trade, to be a measure of the value accorded to a good or service, and that is all. Saving is not a function of money in the Life Networks. In order to safeguard against the future, common ownership and management of common assets are used.
Money finds its origin, its object and its cause in the development of the networks of life and no longer through the affirmation of a power exercised within the framework of a system by a king, a chief, a state, the owners of central banks… who want to control trade in order to take a share of the wealth in order to establish an ever more powerful power and become the masters of the world.
The cause, the origin of money in the Life Networks is at the level of the citizens in their desire to achieve their objectives defined in their Total Quality approach in order to eliminate malfunctions and minimize risks and threats. The full currency will facilitate economic exchange and the use of skills to achieve this and develop wealth, save resources, preserve the environment, respect nature, in short, live better in a civilization that is once again flourishing, humanist, just and peaceful, where citizens learn a new art of living and find their reasons for living.
Historical examples of the use of a Full Currency are all about a quick and effective way out of an economic crisis or to guard against it within the framework of the liberal capitalist system of power.
In chronological order, the cases of Wörgl in Austria, the case of the German recovery and economic miracle between 1933 and 1937, the case of the reconstruction and modernization of France after 1945, the current case of the WIR currency for Swiss companies are presented here. These 4 examples are detailed in our Strategic Analysis for a new use of a Full Currency. Here we will simply take the essential elements in each of these 4 examples to clarify its function and its use.
1) The Wörgl miracle.
In 1932, Mr. Unterguggenberger, Mayor of Wörgl, had read the books and writings of Silvio Gesell on the use of a free currency, without debts. Based on his knowledge of a debt-free currency, he organized a Municipal Emergency Committee to create jobs.
The town of Wörgl, in the Austrian Tyrol, is setting up a relief fund to eliminate the consequences of the world crisis of 1929. It is printing work certificates worth 1, 5 and 10 schillings. It pays the employees and workers of the municipality. These attestations will be named exactly” Wörgl first aid vouchers, value work certificate “.
Only 9,000 schillings were issued as work orders, but with intrinsic dynamics.
The results :
- nearly 1,000 people employed in the city’s factories and municipal officials,,
- carrying out the work decided by the municipality: beach by the river, bridge, roads,
- the financial situation has improved significantly: tax revenues increased from 93,000 schillings to 121,000 schillings without tax increases. The heavy arrears were largely settled. Early tax payments for 1933 were even made!
- the notoriety of this monetary practice in the USA: Irving Fisher, professor of political economy at Yale University, had sent his assistants to Wörgl in December 1932 to study this experiment. One of his Institute’s assistants, Hans Cohrssen, delivered a major North American lecture on the free money experiment on New York Radio on February 17, 1933. He had to do it twice. Finally, under the guidance of Professor Fisher and following the example of Wörgl, such work certificates were issued as relief money in 22 states in the United States, including many cities with several million inhabitants.
The Wörgl miracle is an example of a full mint being used locally in a city which becomes a free city in relation to the state and its central bank. The prosperity brought by the municipal relief fund and its currency in the form of “first aid vouchers, value work certificate”, this free or free currency, was rapid for all economic agents: businesses, the municipality and all citizens. There was no debt, but rather a reduction in public debts.
It is an economic policy of labor supply which leads to an increase in demand with the profits and remuneration paid in the cycle of wealth production.
In order to avoid hoarding this currency and saving it is a melting pot. Each month, the 1% deduction was implemented by means of stamps affixed to the certificates. These stamps were sold by the municipality and thus provided a net tax revenue. In this way, profits and compensation were used in a row to ensure economic growth.
This practice of a debt-free Full Currency, thanks to Professor Irving Fisher, has also been used in the United States in nearly half of the states and in many cities with several million inhabitants.
The German miracle between 1933 and 1937.
The rise to power of Nazism in the context of the preparation of the Second World War decided and financed by the Anglo-Saxon financial oligarchy is presented on the website fileane.com, part 5, dossier” Our dear enemies “, how they organize wars.“
The example of the recovery of the German economy between 1933 and 1937 focuses on industrial development and that of public infrastructure, conducted according to the rules defined by Hjalmar SCHACHT with the use of trade bills adapted to the circumstances of this period. The detailed functioning of this money creation is described in the internal diagnosis for a new use of a Full Currency in terms of its physical resources, i.e. the wealth it can produce.
This example is remarkable (apart from the context of Nazism and the Second World War) because it concerns a rapid and general recovery of the economy of a country that was ruined and also reached by the financial crisis of 1929 and the world economic crisis that was the consequence. In a few years, moving from ruin to industrial production and the elimination of unemployment had never happened before, and not after.
That is why we will use this system of creating a debt-free currency with its mechanisms later in this paper when we present the process of creating and using a Full Currency.
Use of Work Orders
The principle is based on bills of exchange and the circulation of bills of exchange. When everything is to be rebuilt and put to work, it is the local authorities who must take the initiative to start work: roads, infrastructure, schools, hospitals, social housing, etc. They are then addressed to enterprises which, in order to achieve these objectives, have to hire and buy raw materials, production equipment and goods, intermediate consumption which enter into their production.
Local authorities issue trade bills in the form of work orders, which Schacht calls “mefo”, and when the work is complete, these work orders are issued by the national central bank, which then issues legal tender. The German State paid out its Deutschemark only as and when it was “producing”, and the Deutschemark owed it FULLY in its coffers, by the very cycle of the currency.
The state decided to manufacture a production of national material wealth (a hospital, for example). It issued the ‘mefo’ corresponding to the total cost, without any interest, to the undertaking chosen. These mefos were repayable by the State Bank in Deutsche Mark (DM) as and when realized. The mefos of the various producers in the chain, traded against Deutsche Mark, were then used to pay wages and profits, in “real currency”.
Example: the construction of 500 single-family dwellings by the city” V” at a cost of” x. DM.
5 companies are involved from earthworks, construction, water-electricity-gas connections, structures and roofs, interior design (plasters, paintings, carpentry, kitchen furniture, living room, bedrooms, etc.).
The city” V” creates work orders (mefo) for each of the companies involved in this project: this is the first signature on the mefo by the city that orders the work and it begins handing it over to the earthworks company and then to the other 4 companies.
When the production of the earthworks is completed, the city signs the mefo of the earthworks to indicate that the requested work has been carried out and accepted and forwards this mefo with the two signatures to the bank that manages the financing of this real estate project on behalf of the city, the Bank of Deposits. This bank will discount the mefo.
The role of the Central Bank in the use of work orders
This bank, after monitoring the progress of the city’s real estate project, will ask the Central Bank of the State for a rediscount of this mefo to transform it into legal currency, here DM. This is the third signature of the State Central Bank. It creates ‘real’ legal tender in return for the wealth that has been produced and for projects that are monitored to be carried out as planned.
The legal tender created by the central bank is paid to the Deposit Bank and the earth-moving company uses it to remunerate and pay those who have participated in the creation of its added value, employees, suppliers, public administrations, shareholders, etc.
They use “real” legal tender to pay their own wages and share their profits. This real currency, through its use in the economic circuit, sooner or later returns to the State Bank, as it allows new projects and new investment expenditure and growth of the national economy.
Schacht’s currency needs assessment
To avoid overheating economic activity and its consequences for inflation, Schacht proceeds with rigorous common sense.
He knew that spending ENOUGH money is enough to find enough: neither too much nor too little. Any risk of inflation or deflation disappears spontaneously, the equivalence of expenditure and resources resulting from a mathematical constant.
The control instrument is certainly rudimentary but unstoppable in its logic: all you have to do is monitor the level of stocks and shipments in businesses and then in retail stores. The objective is that production be sold and if the time to sell is fast, this is a sign that the economy is turning strong and growing. If this delay slows and factory inventories increase, production must be slowed or unsold goods will be lost.
Reminder: the major risk of the capitalist system based on private ownership of the means of production is the overproduction capable of leading it to ruin. In Germany in the 1930s, given the critical situation, a meticulous plan was not essential before acting for the recovery of the country.
By contrast, in the Soviet Union, by 1935 the Plan’s objectives had been exceeded and the strength of the Soviet economy was becoming a threat to Germany, which would no longer be able to be the European power capable of conquering Russia’s wealth for the Anglo-Saxon financial oligarchy, of which this was the central project.
The German Miracle Between 1933 and 1938
The results were quick and dramatic.
In 1938, Germany, although initially the country most affected by the crisis with the United States, was the only one to have really emerged from the crisis. The 7 million unemployed are no longer unemployed, there is no longer unemployment in Germany.
Starting from a base of 100 in 1929, production in 1938 was 130 in Germany, 104 in the USA, 117 in the United Kingdom and 93 in France (other factors are obviously to be taken into account, notably the exchange rate policy, disastrous in the case of France). The renewed growth in the Third Reich attracted capitalists from all over the world and especially from the United States with the major investments of the Rockefeller family, Ford, General Motors, ITT, the Swedish group SKF. All these foreign investors will finance the Nazi war effort and will also produce for German armaments.
The way in which Hjalmar Schacht was used to straighten out Germany was not at all accepted by the leaders of the Anglo-Saxon financial oligarchy and the political leaders at its service. The independence of a full currency from the financial markets is totally unacceptable to them. For example, these two quotes are very clear on this point.
« Germany’s unforgivable crime before World War II was its attempt to remove its economic power from the global trading system and create its own trading mechanism that would deny global financial benefits.» Churchill, « The Second World War » Bern 1960
« The great bankers are alarmed by the successes of Hitler’s financial policy, just as their families were terrified by the successes of the natural economy of Lincoln and Napoleon several generations ago. What would have been a commendable advance for Germany and others, was in fact the main cause of World War II. The struggle between rival monetary policy was inevitable. » Carnelius Carl Veith, « Citadel of Chaos ».
Comments on the German miracle organized by Schacht
The course of this story and the fate reserved by the Nazi leaders to Schacht are known.
What we note is that the German recovery between 1933 and 1937 mainly benefited the big industrialists who saw their profits explode. They were subsequently able to support the Nazi production in arms and war. Citizens were no longer unemployed and paid salaries, but the ban on trade unions and the desire to develop a powerful arms industry meant that there were no real social policies.
Fascisms have as a social principle to subject people to intensive work with very low wages in order to develop armament industries for the wars they want to wage against their neighbors. Otherwise, fascisms and tyrannies use forced labor for their detainees and prisoners of war until their extermination.
Soon after Schacht’s unsuccessful demand that his method be extended to agricultural production, citizens were faced with food shortages, and the situation became critical. Schacht was accused of being the person responsible and was thus ousted. He also demanded that, after 5 years of misfos, they be reimbursed by the Nazi State because the Central Bank had only lent DMs to the State. Hitler and the Nazi leaders were fed up with the fiscal rectitude of the finance expert Schacht. The central bank was forced by the Nazis to finance spending on arms and then on wars by using the printing of money and the plunder of the wealth of the occupied countries. No need for experts in Macroeconomic Finance!
Hjalmar Schacht, through his relations at the highest level in the United States and Great Britain, knew of the secret plans of Wall Street to seize the wealth of Russia through the organization of a war led by Germany against the Soviet Union and communism. He knew, as did senior US officials, that Rockefeller and JP Morgan had armed Hitler’s SAs, and that the green light for Hitler to come to power had been given in the Oval Lounge of the White House by the US President.
Has he been overzealous in getting his country right so quickly and powerfully? They all knew that the Soviet Union was succeeding in its industrial and economic development, even at the cost of deportations and the starvation of millions of people. When the Nazi victory over the Soviet Union escaped in December 1941 on the outskirts of Moscow, Wall Street leaders knew that the Soviet Union would not be defeated, but they had against it their record on the selection of Marxist and then communist ideology, finally Soviet.
And this communist ideology was the official opposition to their liberal capitalist ideology which allowed them to justify so much spending on arms and wars against the communist countries or political and military maneuvers to impose this communism in the countries which became their targets of economic conquests.
They remained the masters of the game by being able to create the conditions of the wars that for centuries had enriched them so prodigiously. But Schacht’s German recovery should not be known, recognized, and used as an example to develop national economies without indebting itself to international bankers. In this they applied the sentence pronounced by their former, Lionel de Rothschild, to the case of Abraham Lincoln and his dollar Greenback.
Nevertheless, the method and tools put in place in this German recovery have shown their effectiveness, logic and common sense. They must be used for all human activity.
It is not enough to develop a growing economy, but also to plan for the future other than war, to present a future of prosperity and peace. Common sense tells us that mefo, trade bills, a full currency is certainly not the most appropriate tool to achieve this. For the future, it is necessary to use another tool that we will examine in due course, social rights.
The reconstruction of France after 1945.
The mechanism put in place through the Treasury tour
is described in the internal diagnosis for a new use of a Full Currency. It was the Thirty Glorious Days of Reconstruction and Modernization. This mechanism is based on two well-known steps:
♦ the Treasury’s tour of public administrations to learn about their major projects. It is no longer the local authorities that are being questioned but the ministries. This approach fosters the implementation of the Plan that is to guide government policies.
♦ Double discount: the discount of treasury bills with commercial banks held by the government and then the rediscount with the Banque de France, nationalized from 1945 to the present.
The results of the use of this full quasi-currency in France:
During this period of reconstruction of the country, the full currency and the practical use of trade effects will develop a management of production chains and a strategy of concentration of companies behind large nationalized industrial groups including the CGE which in the 1970s groups Alsthom and Alcatel, companies from the SACM and the Mulhouse Industrial Company whose approach to insurance banking we have seen.
Investment needs, financing of equipment programs or research and development of new technologies are presented to the Treasury administration (the Treasury tour) and with the Commissariat Général du Plan, the government’s economic policy is defined. The Government then requests the Banque de France to finance this investment program for the part that cannot be covered by taxation. It is left to manage the legal tender and the stock of foreign exchange in the best interests of the country.
To create money, the Treasury issues Treasury bills that are purchased by institutional investors who need to build on their savings. To limit the increase in the money supply and avoid indebtedness to financial markets, the circulation of bills of exchange and bills of exchange between customers and suppliers is involved.
The discount with the Banque de France, at the end of the production process, then creates legal currency in exchange for the wealth produced, but it is only a set of accounting records at the level of the Central Bank without putting into circulation cash or scriptural money. On the contrary, trade effects, once discounted, are destroyed. Only the central bank’s balance sheet changes to match the level that has increased with this new wealth being produced.
The results of this modernization of the French economy are spectacular and respond to General de Gaulle’s desire to make the country sovereign and independent vis-à-vis the other two major powers, the United States and the Soviet Union, and certainly also vis-à-vis the high finance of Wall Street, whose conduct during the Second World War shocked more than one military man as knowledgeable about political and geo-political issues as de Gaulle.
The nuclear sector develops on the military axis of the nuclear deterrent which guarantees the sovereignty of the country and on the civil axis of the nuclear power plants to ensure energy independence from oil, gas and coal.
Social Security enables the development of state-of-the-art health services and personal services that raise living standards from birth to old age.
The development of research and training raises the level of skills and allows young people to use the “social lift” This list of results is far from exhaustive.
Comments on the use of this full currency during the glorious Thirties:
These economic and social developments, however, are confronted with the political difficulties and wars of the end of colonization. Lifestyles changed rapidly, but the rules and values of French culture remained blocked, leading to successive social conflicts.
The business capitalist, the business bourgeoisie, who had not been in London but in Berlin, according to the famous Gaullian expression, are taking advantage of this French recovery which primarily serves its interests. The cause stems from the government’s use of a quasi-Full Currency that serves only the interests of big business, as was the case with Schacht in Germany between 1933 and 1937.
At the end of the 1970s, in the Faculty of Law, in the fourth year of Master’s degree, the Commercial Law course on Trade Effects and especially the Letter of Change represents the legal aspect of the use of a full currency to rebuild France after 1945. However, from 1973 onwards, the Bank of France, nationalized since 1945 and still today, was prohibited from financing without debt the economic and social, military, energy… policies of the government. This change in monetary policy imposed by the Anglo-Saxon financial oligarchy, now that the country had rebuilt itself, was carried out in complete secrecy. The Business Law program on trade bills had not been updated in the late 1970s, but this had little impact since the legal professors did not indicate what trade bills and their direct relationship to a debt-free currency were really used to develop a national economy. But did they know it themselves?
In reality, it was only a quasi-full currency because it was reserved for public investment and not available for consumer credit. A landmark event that characterizes this policy of rebuilding the country with a quasi-full currency dates from the winter of 1954 with the intervention of Abbé Pierre.
To illustrate this anger, we can take the example of the region of Rouen where Abbé Pierre installed his first Emmaus communities. In 1954, the Tancarville Bridge project was handled by local politicians, as was the government’s major infrastructure and industrialization projects. But millions of French people are cold and many die from cold.
Full currency without debt is only used by government and employers for big projects and profits of their big companies. We have since learned that the issue of social housing has remained unresolved and that the political promises in this area have not been kept. We will come back to this when we address the Common Goods.
The WIR currency used by Swiss companies since 1934.
We come back here in the same economic and social context of the years that were affected by the crisis of 1929, as we saw with the Wörgl miracle in the Austrian Tyrol. The basic monetary knowledge used in Switzerland is also that provided by Silvio Gesell and its “free currency”, without debts.
The origin of Swiss full currency reserved for employers
The WIR currency has been in existence in Switzerland since 1934. Born in the context of economic and monetary crisis, it has managed to resist economic and social changes and to develop. Its success, used today by more than 60,000 companies in Switzerland, reflects a coherent economic and social model that this particular currency conveys.
Zimmermann and Enz then came up with the idea of creating a cooperative called WIR-Cercle économique société coopération (the name it retained until 1998).
More specifically, it is a self-help organization for companies in different sectors, enabling its members to strengthen their cooperation while stimulating their exchanges. The aim is for each to put its purchasing power at the service of others in order to increase the overall performance of the system. Hence the idea of introducing a currency to facilitate access to credit and exchange, at a time when it is estimated that 20% of banknotes in circulation are hoarded in Switzerland (Wüthrich, 2008).
This program became effective in 1936, with the obtaining of an official bank license. Zimmermann and Enz are very critical of the hoarding and more broadly of the development of financial capitalism, and in this respect they are inspired by the ideas of Silvio Gesell, who advocated the introduction of a “free currency”. …/…
In accordance with Zimmermann and Enz’s ideas, the WIR system therefore operates with its own currency, and this always without interest on WIR assets and credits at the “pure” interest rate mentioned above. In view of this deletion, WIR Bank charges between 1 and 3 % of the amount of each transaction in order to cover its operating costs and the risk incurred. ( end of document)
In fact, the original cooperative, in order to develop in the liberal economic system, had to take on the characteristics of commercial banks and especially use the credits to have new customers and grow. It helps small and large businesses, but it is not intended to change the liberal system. On the contrary, it strengthens it while remaining protected in its private space. It is a currency that operates at low interest rates and thus benefits customers, but the scope of this movement has been limited to the interests of entrepreneurs.
We are far from the Mutual Insurance Bank of the Mulhouse Industrial Society in the 19th century and the social dimension of its industrial development. This explains why the example of the Mulhouse Industrial Society is today banned by the leaders of the liberal system and in particular by the mainly Catholic French employers and that this example of the WIR currency used by Swiss employers has been able to develop and is politically “correct” today in the liberal system.
Mulhouse combined business leaders, managers, workers, municipalities, regions, in an economic and social development according to Protestant culture that had not changed since the Republic of Mulhouse dissolved in 1798 when it voluntarily joined the French Republic. There was a kind of Plan in which everyone participated.
In Switzerland, this participation of employees and citizens is not foreseen. There is no overall plan for the WIR currency… just as there was no loan plan when Monnaie Pleine was voted in 2018.
Like any citizens’ initiative, it can only amend one point of the legislation. Its purpose is limited to strengthening the security of citizens’ bank accounts to protect them against financial crises.
The initiative focuses on the difference between the bank’s “balance sheet” and “assets managed and administered” outside the bank’s balance sheet. A glance at Swissbanking’s 2014 Banking Barometer will show that banks’ balance sheets are around $3 trillion, with banks managing more than $6 trillion in deposits outside their balance sheets. The Full Currency Initiative proposes to take approximately 370 billion payment accounts off the balance sheet, or 6% more: and they want to scare us because the banking world couldn’t do that? This small difference for banks will make a big difference for customers: It has been clearly seen in the bankruptcy of Hottinger Bank that the assets managed off the balance sheet have not suffered any loss. Why reserve this competitive advantage to the “rich” alone?
It was a first step, to open a door so that after a successful vote, everything becomes possible!
Political parties and employers quickly realized that the success of this initiative and the restoration of citizen sovereignty over monetary creation would change the political, economic, social functioning of the country to a return to the founding values of the free cantons and the Swiss Confederation: a participatory local direct democracy that had to be updated.
But during this Initiative, this description of the “society after”, this complete and precise vision of the use of a Full Currency and all that goes with it, could not be revealed. We have all come to know more about the banking and monetary system, but a global proposal to set up a company capable of using a full currency has not been produced.
Our file on the internal and external strategic analysis for the use of a sovereign currency on this website includes most of the debates that took place and the texts that served as support for our discussions in Lausanne or Geneva. (see links below)
The basic scheme of this operation was correctly set out in 1942 by Francis Delaisi in his book The European Revolution, in which he praised the German economic system based on labor capital rather than on the gold standard or the dollar.
We take from this economic system its motor: the use of a debt-free currency, a free currency or a full currency, expressions which refer to the same principle of creating a currency which belongs to the citizens and serves their interests. This engine, we have just discovered through the 4 uses presented here. His scheme is always the same and in the Networks of Life it will be the same. Then it remains to be determined which economic agents use it.
On the other hand, here we use the Full Currency in a humanistic culture where Labor precedes Capital, not the other way around.
The scheme and steps in using a full currency
In Life Networks, it will be the same pattern and the same steps.
Step 1: Signing the Work Offer Certificate.
A political institution with at least one of its life project teams solves a dysfunction or wants to satisfy a new need. Through the Total Quality approach, this project team evaluates the COQ, the cost of obtaining this Total Quality. This evaluation is presented to the Management Center of the local institution, a Free City or, where appropriate, directly to the Confederation with the support of its Free City of Home.
The management center presents this project and its financing to the assembly of the political action of the Free City or the Confederation. Depending on the amount of funding, below a certain limit, the Free City issues a Job Offer Certificate and signs it and then hands it over to the companies selected by the project team in its COQ.
Beyond this limit, and for this project which requires significant investment and work, the Free City in relation to the Confederation seeks to know whether a Cost of Securing Solidarity is possible as well as synergies. In the meantime, the funding is included in the Plan at the local and Confederal levels.
Once the file has been completed, the Free City or the Confederation issues a Job Offer Certificate and signs it and then gives it to the companies selected by the project team in its QOC or to the companies selected with the assistance of the Confederation to achieve economies of scale in production.
Step 2: signature to the achievement of the goals of the life project.
The project team submits its report to the Free City Management Center, which monitors and validates the payment for the work. A commission of the Assembly of Political Action signs the Job Offer Voucher and forwards it to the local bank of the Free City for a first discount.
Step 3: the second discount with the Central Bank of the Confederation.
This discount allows the Central Bank of the Confederation to create legal currency for the amount of the works and this legal currency is transmitted to the local bank of the Free City for payment of participants in the creation of the Added Value of the project.
Life project teams use full currency in Life Networks.
This Full Currency is used for the operation of businesses, payment of remuneration.
A team of life projects that creates or pursues its activity towards new objectives first uses this Full Currency and, if necessary, when it needs additional funding, it asks the Free City and, if appropriate, the Confederation whether there are any available Full Currency.
When the project team is dissolved and its members create a new project team or go to join other project teams, the Free City Management Center proceeds with the liquidation of the accounts of this project team and transfers the available financial resources to other activities.
Depending on the Plan and the progress of the life projects, these availabilities are transferred as a priority and then there is the creation of new Job Offer Vouchers. When work is deferred or activity is reduced, the cash in full currency is withdrawn from the management centers or local bank and converted into Social Rights for later use when necessary as Social Rights in the management of Common Assets or to convert them back into full currency for immediate use. We will revisit this case when we approach the management of the Common Goods with Social Rights.
In legal terms, when bills of exchange and bills of exchange circulate, the liability between endorsers and endorsers is in solidum. In the event of a failure by one of them, which would thus break the chain of transmission and confidence, the person who suffers the damage may apply to any of the other signatories of the bill of exchange for payment.
This malfunction is then the subject of a Quality Circle to find a COQ and eliminate this malfunction and insure against this risk. The damage is counted as a loss in the calculation of the Cost of Obtaining Solidarity.
We understand that this management of a full, debt-free currency has a strong interest in being carried out within the framework of precise forecasts of the activity to be carried out now and in the future. This was the last time in France after 1945 when the country was rebuilt and modernized.
French Planning after 1945, by Pierre Massé: page 88.
« The long-term forecasts and programs established at the national level in Western countries are basically nothing more than a transposition and generalization of the technique of commercial agreements under private law.. » (R. Marjolin et Duquesne de la Vinelle.)
« The instrument of these forecasts and programs is the economic painting of François Quesnay, whom Mirabeau considered to be “the great discovery that makes the glory of our century and whose posterity will bear fruit ».
The posterity was long overdue, but it did come when Leontief gave the economic picture its modern form and Gruson created and developed the Accounts of the Nation. The economic picture is, initially, a description of the material flows between the main sectors..
…/… page 93.
The function of the Plan is to develop this economic and financial system of wealth production organized by the government.
« The instructions sent on 10 January 1946 to Mr. Jean Monnet by General de Gaulle, President of the Government, were in fact expressed in the following terms :
« Since the implementation of the Plan will require the cooperation of all, it is essential that all vital elements of the Nation participate in its development. » A second element of success is the coherence of the Plan, the fact that it foreshadows, if everyone plays the game, a situation in which the factors and the products of the different branches will be exchanged on markets in equilibrium.
end of document.
The use of the Full Currency in all economic activity is the novelty brought by the Life Networks
The use of the full currency by the political institutions of the Networks of Life is therefore not a new and little known solution. What is radically new is the scope of its use and its generalization to all human activity.
In contemporary history, this generalization of its use has never occurred before.
The explanation is simple and our reader has understood it: in a system of power that controls human activity with money and debts and with the generalization of the subjection of citizens to the obligation to get into debt in order to live, the use of a full currency can only be partial and punctual when it is necessary to quickly rebuild an economy in crisis… so that it can make war as the plans of the masters of the world foresee it. This was the case with the Schacht plan to pull Germany out of the crisis of 1929 and its problems with the Treaty of Versailles and its defeat in November 1918.
Politicians who did not understand these financial issues and the power over the creation of the currency, such as Churchill in the United Kingdom, objected as early as 1936 to the use of a full currency in Germany to revive the country’s economy. Hence their desire during and after the Second World War to totally destroy the German economy.
For the first time, after leaving the systems of power, the use of a full currency is used to pay for work throughout all human activity. The condition of this remuneration, as we have just seen, is in practice the Total Quality approach throughout all human activity.
This Total Quality approach then represents the daily and endless practice of subsidiarity, the alliance of opposites, the transition from assurance to solidarity. This practice is endless because it is no longer limited or ruled out because of a lack of money.
The Treasury tour used to raise investment projects and financing needs in the power system between 1945 and 1973 no longer exists and is replaced by political action at the level of local political institutions and then at the level of the Confederation of Networks of Life. Prepared by the Life Networks Management Centers, the Assemblies of the political institutions decide on the financing of the Costs of obtaining Quality to eliminate or reduce risks and malfunctions.
There is no longer any reference to markets in equilibrium, the dogma of the capitalist and liberal system, which has never been verified by this deceptive ideal. The deadly and destructive risk of overproduction that exists in capitalism no longer exists. Political action, through its management of all human activity, organizes the distribution of resources and skills according to the level of satisfaction of needs on the two levels of wealth production: the work essential to life and survival on the one hand and on the other hand the realization of works capable of raising the standard of living and which are passed on to future generations. Full employment is achieved through this adjustment decided by the political action of the institutions of the Life Networks.
We are indeed in the presence of this endless prosperity predicted in 1863 by Lionel de Rothschild when he opposed the practice of the Greenbacks set up by Abraham Lincoln to finance the troops of the Union in the Civil War and thus put end to the private Central Bank of the United States. See the chapter in Part 5 on financing and directing wars.
The difficulty of planning the services and intangible wealth that citizens need according to the situations encountered.
In terms of how this process of wealth production works and the remuneration of labor required for this production, there is a well-documented and classical difficulty in economics: as easy as it is to assess and plan the needs for the production of material goods or equipment, infrastructure, it becomes very difficult to plan services, intangible wealth.
Specialists in French planning after 1945 understood this well: “The field of common objects is much more fluid. It is almost impossible to know four years in advance which new gadget will be popular. But here the regulation takes place through the adaptation of manufacturing by means of easy transformations and rapid investments.”
Hence the need to develop Marketing. And again, we are still here at the level of material goods. In terms of services, for example social housing, we have seen that in 1954 there was a total lack of planning for these buildings. And today the only planning that applies to public services is that of high finance, which reduces their funding through austerity measures before they can privatize them, since they are no longer able to provide a quality public service.
We can quote from memory another known statement: If the Soviet Union had had computers by the 1930s, communism would have succeeded. Today we all have computers at our disposal, only this planning is forbidden because it is radically opposed to the doctrine of markets and the capitalist system dominated by the Anglo-Saxon financial oligarchy. Yet the planning that serves as the basis for creating and managing the Full Currency as well as the Social Rights allows the development of the Common Goods and the realization of works that raise the standard of living.
The circulation of the full legal currency without debts is indispensable to simplify the exchanges intended to live and to consume the usual goods and services. Payments are made in cash and usually in scriptural money. However, the aim is to eliminate the risk of hoarding, i.e. consumers saving by setting aside full currency and thus creating a money flight and a medium-term risk of inflation.
Silvio Gesell’s Free Currency
We have seen in the historical cases of the use of a full currency that Silvio Gesell used to defend the free currency and put in place a founding currency to dissuade consumers from hoarding that currency. The Work Offer Certificate, if kept longer than authorized, was subject to tax. The dates of circulation on the Job Offer Certificate provided evidence to justify or not this dissuasive imposition. Consumers who kept a voucher for a long time paid a lot of taxes, which reduced the real value of the voucher accordingly.
In the case of Wörgl, this was possible because only these vouchers were circulating and it was only after the wealth was produced and sold to external economic agents that Austrian legal currency or foreign currencies entered the coffers of the city. In the case of the German recovery, given the miserable situation at the outset and the fact that mefo was mainly circulating between large companies and their subcontractors, the risk of hoarding the DM currency created after the mefo double discount was minimal.
In Life Networks, this risk of hoarding cannot compromise sustainable development and future prosperity.
However, there is no possibility of hoarding and earning a living from its rents because commercial enterprises do not have shareholders and investors as in capitalism. So savings don’t have that income-generating ability. To finance investments, work and the development of life projects, citizens and their political institutions use a Full Currency and Social Rights, as we will see.
So no debt for loans, no dividends to pay to shareholders or investment funds, etc. This represents a significant competitive advantage and a total elimination of the current capital overcharge compared to the liberal capitalist system.
Savings to prepare for the future is natural and permitted, only it takes a new form that does not exist in the system of liberal capitalist power and for good reason, since it is strictly prohibited there since it uses common property: It’s called Social Rights.
Hoarding is justified in order to have financial resources when a particular event occurs in the future so as to be able to cope with it. The other argument is based on the desire to capitalize these financial resources to indulge in a particular moment and to offer an exceptional and unusual good or service. The problem therefore lies in forecasting and organizing the future, with its risks and opportunities for pleasure.
Planning for these needs and services in the future is possible and essential.
These future events will therefore complement the Plan put in place to manage the Monnaie Pleine which finances short-term works.
Planning values the work to be done either in Full Currency for immediate short-term work or in Social Rights for the medium and long term.
For example , for a human being , at birth, expenses for the needs of the baby and the parents are evaluated in Full Currency. From birth, social rights are planned at the age of 3, spending on wages and investments from kindergarten, etc., until planning a retirement home and spending at the end of life on wages and investments.
As they get older, citizens define their life plans: whether or not to pursue higher education, live in the city or in the countryside, go abroad for a few years or permanently, get married, have children, etc. At each stage, these data update the planning that was made at birth and the management of social rights is updated.
When the time comes, citizens directly use these social entitlements in the common goods used or convert a quantity of Social Entitlements into Full Currency to pay for expenses that have become immediate. Of course, citizens’ work is paid in full money and a portion of it is left to the choice of each employee, is paid in social rights (as for current social contributions). Social rights acquired from work become more important than those granted from birth through planning.
This management, which is central to political action in the political institutions of the life networks, will be developed in the next chapter when we develop the management of the Common Goods. At the moment we present the means of payment and the full currency that promote the development of exchanges between life networks.
This planning, which guarantees the development of the common goods which raise the standard of living, is thus adjusted flexibly year after year in the light of changing lifestyles and demographic changes. This adjustment is the subject of decisions taken by political action at the level of the institutions in which citizens operate.
Managing the Common Assets of the Past and Our Seniors
We have just seen the financing of the present and future activity. There is also activity that uses the past, the material and intangible heritage passed on by the generations that preceded us.
The events that will occur voluntarily or inevitably in human life are known and form part of our human condition from our birth until the death of our carnal body. Our elders went through this and built buildings and knowledge to have the best solutions to live these moments and things of life with dignity and safety.
At the local level, particularly during the medieval period in Europe, this heritage and knowledge were managed under the legal status of Common Property. Today the collective property of the nation-state manages public services, those of the welfare state that the neoliberal ideology and its supporters want to privatize and if not drastically reduce public funding through the tax system.
These common goods managed in common ownership do not need to use a full currency as in the normal consumption of material goods.
The use of the services depends closely on the premises and their equipment, but also on their location, their natural environments, their situation in remarkable landscapes, the living environments adapted to education, research, restoring one’s health, practicing leisure, sharing one’s love, practicing one’s first source of knowledge and our spiritual journey. The use of these services and their means is more a right of access to these facilities than the payment of a consumer good.
This right of access to a Common Property is more a title permitting the use of a thing than the payment of a property with a currency which permits all the elements of a property: use, right to earn income from it, power to destroy or sell it.
The relationship between the use of money and the use of some form of property rights.
In other words, we return to this stage of the analysis to the justification of a currency according to the property right to which it relates. And this property right depends on a temporal criterion: the present or the future or the past and its heritage, its knowledge that we need to preserve.
The use of property rights therefore varies according to the time of consumption of a good or service, either in the short term or in the medium or long term, but also according to the way in which this consumption is financed in the present and in the future.
The accounting entries in the operation of the Life Networks are thus expressed either in Full Currency or in Social Rights.
The legal distinction according to the desired use of the property right:
|property rights used||Means of payment||Types of goods concerned||Category of production concerned|
|Full ownership: usus, fruitful, abusus use, receive fruit, sell or destroy||Positive Money||Consumer Goods||Products|
|Incomplete right of ownership: only right of use||Social Rights||Common Property||Services|
- The whole property right, usus, fruits, abusus is used by full currency for consumer goods that are products Ex: rent a house, sell your car
- The right of use, the usus, is only used by Social Rights to manage common goods that are services. Ex: health: right to use hospital care.
The distinction between the time of consumption:
|Type of consumption||Means of payment used||Economic function ensured|
|Immediate consumption of material products for living.||Positive Money||Consumption|
|Deferred and scheduled consumption for later or when needed, for example:|
education, health, justice, security, travel and leisure, retirement, dependency and end of life, etc
- Immediate consumption of products for living is ensured by full currency as part of the economic function of consumption.
- The deferred consumption of goods or services is ensured by social rights which correspond to the economic saving function.
Use of the means of payment according to the right of ownership and the level of management of the exchanges.
|The form of ownership concerned||Trade and labor payment shall use the means of payment of:||Who manages this economic activity?|
|Private individual property of each legal person||Several payment methods are possible: The Full Currency Double-entry bookkeeping, barter, gift.||Legal persons, citizens.|
|Common Property managed directly by all members of the social group||Social Rights||the Local Institution that manages the Common Goods|
|Collective property managed by representatives of members of the social group. It concerns essentially intangible goods, knowledge, methods for managing human activity.||It uses either the Full Currency or Social Rights Based on immediate or delayed consumption.||It is managed at the level of the Central Bank of the Confederation in its mission to develop synergies and solidarity internally or externally with other nations or Confederations of nations.|
At the level of each political institution, the political action of its members determines the form of ownership used in its functioning and the nature of the exchanges that are carried out. Here we are at the heart of the exercise of power and the mission of the assemblies of political action: choose the most appropriate form of ownership to manage a good or service in the short or medium to long term.
For example, a free city or a life project team may decide to purchase the vehicles they need to achieve their goals. It will have the choice between common or collective ownership. As these are goods or physical goods, it will probably be easier to use the Full Currency and use collective ownership: the vehicles will be managed by representatives of the social group, certainly a small group of mechanics. To build a building, management will be entrusted either to the social group or to a group of building specialists who will report to the assembly of the institution. Once the building is built, the staff providing the services may be managed under an individual employment contract or on collective property as representatives appointed by the social group according to the necessary skills and the duration of the mission performed in the institution.
There is therefore a great deal of flexibility in the operation of the Life Networks in terms of the use of the means of payment and this flexibility makes it possible to obtain transparency and, above all, much better security in the exchanges.
The communist system of power uses only collective property managed by the communist or Soviet party alone and individual and common property is forbidden, hence the inevitable totalitarian drift.
The communism described by Marx and Engels does condemn the capitalist system of power, but it remains to be analyzed historically, philosophically and sociologically and even today the communist activists at first sight, do not understand anything about this right of property which is forbidden to us by the political leaders from the royal absolutism to the Constitution of the Fifth Republic.
Obsessed with class struggle within a system of power, they blissfully confuse collective and common ownership by believing that collective and communist is the same thing as common and the management of the Common Goods by the group itself in a direct participatory local democracy or named today through the global village of the Internet: Networks of political, economic, social, cultural life…
On the other hand, the development of the Networks of Life aims at the priority use of the common goods at the level of works intended to raise the standard of living and which are transmitted to future generations. Collective ownership, as we recall, has as its primary objective the management of intangible goods or services. Among the social rights that guarantee the exchange of knowledge or intangible production, besides the use of a material or interpersonal good or service, there is also the gift or barter which here complement the possibilities of payment of an exchange
This priority objective of developing the Common Goods uses the different means of payment and these are based on the distinction between consumption and saving, deferred consumption. If it is easier to plan the production of material goods or capital goods (machinery, etc.), if the capitalist system has not been willing to plan the development of public services in order to better hope to privatize them, the Networks of Life will plan the development of the Common Goods.
We’ll come to that in the next chapter. Before doing so, however, it remains for us to present the intervention of the Confederation of Life Networks in the management of the Mint Pleine.
The intervention of the College of Commerce of the Confederation of Life Networks in the management of the full currency.
This intervention is therefore more precise in the management of the Mint Pleine and Social Rights.
The Confederation will work on planning to identify synergies
otherwise, productivity gains, especially first and foremost positive economies of scale in the production tool.
We repeat that the use of bills of exchange and bills of exchange promotes and requires strategies of concentration by sector, most often vertical. The confederation will animate and control the work of the various centers of management of the life networks responsible for this search of synergies and productivity gains. The example given in the document on the French plan after 1945 presents the market study of the steelworker:
document: page 88.
Therefore, any firm does such studies before establishing its investment and manufacturing programs.
The steelmaker supplies ore and coke, assumes its markets in the energy, mechanical and construction sectors, and inquires about its competitors’ programs. It only makes its decisions after careful exploration of its industrial environment.
However, by limiting itself to that environment, it may neglect areas of activity which it considers remote from its own and which are, however, liable to react to its situation.
Developments in agricultural incomes or oil research, for example, have effects that are passed down through the economy, and that, after affecting the production of tractors or tubes, end up influencing steel sales.
The guiding idea of indicative planning is to integrate all these interrelated effects by extending the steel producer’s supply and market behavior to the nation.
end of the document extract.
Planning remained indicative in France after 1945 because liberal doctrine imposes it and the case-law remains established on the theory of the entrepreneur alone judging his management, except on the question of the dismissal of part or all of the staff when his factory or establishment is partially or totally closed.
This planning in the Life Networks is at least incentive if not imperative in fact but this should not pose any difficulties since the life project teams and their institutions practice subsidiarity, Total Quality and other management methods in a participatory management. The expected result is indeed the optimal solution given the available knowledge, an optimal solution which meets in principle with unanimity.
The Economic Table of the Confederation Accounts
also allows you to manage the schedule and its updates
- for the Mint Mass in circulation with the amounts exchanged by bills of exchange and bills of exchange
- as well as for the accounting year, the amount of the conversions from Social Rights to Full Currency
- And finally, the stock of social rights that will be used in future years to put people to work.
Citizens want to know the workload for the coming months and years in a business, after they know what will happen. The Plan responds to this human expectation, this need for security.
The final result, as we have said, will be read in the balance sheet of the Confederation Bank and the expected increase in its assets representing the wealth produced and available to the citizens of the Networks of Life. We now understand that most of these assets will be in the commons.
The reader will also understand from now on that the use of a Full Currency and Social Rights with all the rules and measures, the planning, which allow their management, is likely to guarantee on the social level not only the more or less rapid elimination of the inequalities of income and wealth caused by royal absolutism and then the capitalist economic system, but also the elimination of the class struggle since on the social level, in the Networks of Life, there is no room for social classes.
We will see that in the humanist civilization carried by the Networks of Life, there are no social classes, only a functional organization of human activity which, during the medieval period in the free cities where all were bourgeois of the city, involved the distribution of citizens according to their skills and professions, in different orders or corporations. We will come and update this organization at the level of the social institutions of the Networks of Life.
To conclude on the use of full currency in Life Networks
The Full Currency and Social Rights are a Common Good
established on a set of interrelations between citizens who share a common vision of the world and a common search for their reasons for living.
These exchanges are the exercise of Power as we defined it by presenting at the very beginning, the choice of civilization and the definition of the Power of Hannah Arendt, definition taken from the examples of ancient Greek and Egyptian civilizations: “a gathering of equal men committed to action”. It corresponds to “the ability to act in a concerted manner” and “it springs up among men when they act together.”
This joint exercise of power, it should be recalled now, is also the foundation of the confidence deposited in the Positive Money.
The Positive Money belongs to all
because they all trust him to pay for their work and to use the consumer goods and services they need to live better, raise their standard of living and together develop a new art of living in a once again flourishing civilization.
In Part 5, which presents the transition between the liberal system of power and the development of the Networks of Life, we will discuss practical measures to implement the Mint Pleine and Social Rights. We will take the main step of the Swiss initiative Monnaie Pleine to better secure the accounts of commercial bank customers and go further to implement the principles set out on this page and in this chapter.
In order to explore this issue of money creation by citizens, the Strategic Analysis for the use of a Full Currency in Life Networks brings together the documents we have selected to show who opposed a private central bank and how a Full Currency was used during economic crises, particularly during the 1930s.
This dossier, which is essential for identifying the development axes of a Full Currency, includes :