Our dear enemies, file 3: financing and the management of wars
Part 1 Wars before the Second World War
“We think we are dying for the fatherland; We die for industrialists. »» Anatole FRANCE (1844-1924), L’Humanité, 18 juillet 1922.
“War, a slaughter of people who don’t know each other, for the benefit of people who know each other but don’t slaughter each other.” Paul Valéry.
“In this world there are only two forces, the sword and the spirit. In the long run the spirit has always defeated the sword ” Napoléon Bonaparte.
Updated at the end of February 2018, by inserting for the period 1918-1945 extracts from Jacques PAUWELS’ book, “BIG BUSINESS with Hitler”, Aden editions, February 2013.
Update of November 14, 2019, by inserting a summary of Dominique-François BARETH’s book, “The secret decision of Eisenhower Saint-Dié – November 24, 1944 In Alsace and Lorraine, the sacrificed Victory”, La Nuée Bleue. Strasbourg, May 2019.
Wars before 1910
1.1 The American War of Independence and the Rothschilds’ fortune
Fortune built through massacres.
The Maison Rothschild internationale is a fine example of the wealth built through the massacres of humanity. Anselme Rothschild lived in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, where he served as a banker for the landgrave of Hesse. This prince was the richest in Europe, and he was enriched mainly by trading men for war.
Thus, when George III, King of England, wanted soldiers to fight against the revolted colonies of America, not to send Englishmen to fight against the English, he turned to the landgrave, which provided him with a regiment of Hessians, of 16,800 men, for payment by George III of 20,000,000 dollars. The landgrave entrusted his twenty million to his banker Rothschild to make them fruitful, each of them drawing his share of profit.
Since there was a war in America and the war still generated high interest for the lenders of capital, Rothschild thought it wise to lend the money to his fellow American Haym Solomon. The latter lent to greater interest, so Morris proposed him to finance the war by George Washington.
Thus the money provided by George III to pay for an army was used to finance George III’s opponents. Rothschild and Solomon benefited at both ends, while the Americans and the English or Hessians killed each other on the battlefields.
Anselme Rothschild had five sons and he had trained them in this successful business. The most skillful of the five, Nathan, settled in London, where he established the bank and brokerage firm N. M. Rothschild and Sons; Jacques settled in Paris, Solomon in Vienna. It was during the French Revolution.
1.2 The Wars of Napoleon
Napoleon’s wars came at a good time. England borrowed from Nathan Rothschild to fight Napoleon. Napoleon borrowed from Jacques Rothschild and his comrades to fight England. Soldiers were falling, wives and mothers were crying, hatreds were growing, while the Rothschilds enjoyed…
Nathan, a true financial genius, alone, earned $6 million in one day, the day after Waterloo: the loss did not impoverish him. The same genius made its way to Spain in 1835, where, in revenge for a government that did not want to do its will despite corrupt payments made to the Spanish Minister of Finance, he and his brother in Paris spent nine million dollars on the ruin of Spanish securities, triggering a global crisis, ruining thousands of bearers, while the Rothschilds were enriched on the debris. And the other brother of Vienna, Solomon, dared to write to a confidant: “Tell Prince Metternich that the House of Rothschilds did so out of vengeance.”
1.3 America’s Forgotten War Against Central Banks
America’s Forgotten War on Central Banking by Mike Hewitt, Financial Sense University, translated by Régis Mex for Mecanopolis.
The War of 1812.
The Democratic-Republican majority voted against renewing the federal government’s permission for the central bank to exist, and the first Bank of the United States officially closed on March 3, 1811.
Nathan Mayer Rothschild, son of Mayer Amschel Rothschild, is quoted by some historians as having warned “that the United States would find itself involved in a most disastrous war if the charter of the central bank was not renewed”. Coincidentally, five months after the first bank in the United States was closed, England declared a war funded by loans to the Rothschilds who were already the preeminent bankers in Europe at that time. The War of 1812 ended without victors in 1814, as the British were busy fighting Napoleon at the same time.
The American Civil War from 1861 to 1865.
The Rothschilds financed both sides of the American Civil War from 1861 to 1865. From December 1860 to May 1861, eleven states whose economic system was based on slavery (the Southern States) resigned from the Union and constituted the “Confederate States”. This provoked the Civil War in April 1861 against the other states of the Union located to the north of the United States. It was almost exclusively ROTHSCHILD AGENTS who created and fomented the civil war. One of these provocateurs was GEORGES BICKLEY who founded the “KNIGHTS OF THE GOLDEN CIRCLE”.
Through Bickley and his knights, the Rothschild House emphasized the inconvenience of the Union to the Confederate states. In the other states of the Union, on the other hand, the ROTHSCHILD, using “J.P. Morgan” and “August Belmont”, emphasized the benefits of the Union. ROTHSCHILD’s bank in London financed the North and Paris’s bank in the South. What a colossal deal for the Rothschilds! You can only be the winner if you fund both sides and give them the weapons. Who were the vanquished? Americans, those from the northern states and those from the southern states.
The Lehman family made a fortune passing guns to the south and cotton to the north. By 1861, the US was $100 million in debt again. The new President Abraham Lincoln also played European bankers by having the famous “Lincoln Greenbacks” printed to pay the bills of the Army of the North. President LINCOLN, who broke the game, refused in 1862 and 1863 to pay them the enormous interest payments. Soon after, he instructed Congress to print the “Green Back” dollars to pay the Union troops.
In 1862, with the passage of the Legal Tender Act, Abraham Lincoln returned to section 1 of the Constitution and created the Green Back Dollar. Thus, without increasing the state’s debt, he was able to pay the Union’s troops.
“The power of the financiers tyrannizes the nation in peacetime and conspires against it in times of adversity” and “the power of money will try to prolong its rule until all wealth is concentrated in a few hands”
Otto von Bismark, Chancellor of Prussia, following the assassination of Lincoln:
“I fear that foreign bankers will completely dominate America’s abundant wealth … they will not hesitate to precipitate Christian states into wars and chaos, in order to become heirs to the whole earth”
On 14 April 1865, after his assassination, his successor Andrew Johnson immediately suspended the printing of Green Back dollars, and returned to the previous system.
The last president to try, belatedly, to change this system was John Fitzgerald Kennedy. On 4 June 1963, he signed Executive Order #11110, which took over Art1 of the Constitution and did not need the services of the FED (the new name of the institution in 1913 which oversees the dozen private banks).
On November 26, 1963, after Kennedy’s assassination, Lyndon B. Johnson, the new president, immediately suspended Executive Order No. 11110. The Green Back Dollars were once again withdrawn from circulation and bought at a ridiculously low price by central bankers Morgan, Belmont and Rothschild.
No longer will any President bring any reform to the functioning of the EDF.
end of document
The Rothschild newspaper “Times of London” of March 1863 wrote this statement by its owner, Lionel de Rothschild:
“If this mischievous policy, which originated in the Republic of North America, were to become a fixed reality in the long run, then this government could provide its own currency without cost. He will pay his debts and be debt free. He will have all the money he needs to support his business. It will become prosperous beyond anything seen so far in the history of civilized governments of the world. The know-how and wealth of all countries will go to North America. We must destroy this government or it will destroy our monarchy. “
Of course, this was not consistent with the Rothschilds’ plan: the consequence was that one of their agents, JOHN WILKES BOOTH, killed Lincoln on their order on 14 April 1865. He was later released from prison by the “Knights of the Golden Circle” and spent the rest of his life very pleasantly in England with a large sum offered by the ROTHSCHILD.
John Pierpont Morgan , during the tumultuous period of the Civil War, served in both the London and New York offices. He made a lot of money during the war because the paternal firm was the financial representative of the Union in Britain. Morgan negotiates loans for the Union, finances arms purchases, speculates on gold…,
1.4 The elimination of the Czar regime in Russia.
At the end of the 19th century, the Anglo-Saxon financial oligarchy held power in Europe and the United States, only Russia did not want a central bank run by private banks and refused to become the client of these banks to the point of being subjected to them. So the bankers will seek to overthrow the Czars in order to own Russia’s natural wealth, its oil.
Mining and oil extraction exploded between 1890 and 1914. The Ural Mountains provide 80% of the platinum marketed (Morin, 1983). Between 34 and 36 million tons (T) of coal are mined annually from 1910 to 1913. Cast iron production is 5 million T, steel production is 4.5-4.7 million T (Mende, 1955; Gaillard, 1998). Oil extraction is 9-10 million T/yr (Gaillard, 1998) in the Caucasus, where there is fierce competition between the Benito trust of the Rothschilds, locally led by Marcus Samuel, and the Asiatic Petroleum Cy subsidiary of Henry Deterding’s Royal Dutch Shell, until anti-Jewish unrest among the Caucasians (led in 1903 by Joseph Dougashvili, soon dubbed “Stalin” by “Lenin”) led to the 1909-1910 divestiture of 80% of the Rothschilds’ share in the Anglo-Dutch trust, less ethnically-typed (Yergin, 1993).
The Rothschilds’ disappointment is further compounded by the other grievances of Jewish financiers against the Tsarist regime, particularly those of the Kuhn-Loeb Bank of New York, where Jacob Schiff works, and those of the Warburg Bank of Hamburg, where the humanist cousins of the City and Wall Street are used as a bridge between the Jewish revolutionaries of Russia, via various Jewish banks in Sweden. The Rothschild Group has invested significant capital in Russia since 1892 (Lottman, 1995; Ferguson, 1998-2).
If all that can be guessed in the light of these facts is true, then I think we can induce who invented this terrible machine of accumulation and anarchy, the Finance International. And at the same time, as I think, it may well be the same person who created the Revolutionary International. It was an act of genius. Create with the aid of the highest degree of capital accumulation, which pushes the proletariat to strike, to sow despair, and at the same time to create organizations intended to unite the proletarians in order to lead them to revolution. That is the most majestic chapter in history. Better still, remember the phrase from the mother of the five Rotschild brothers: “If my sons want it, then there will be no more wars.” This means that they were the mediators, the masters of peace and war, not the emperors.
1.5 The war between Japan and Russia after 1904.
Jacob Henry Schiff granted a $200 million loan to Japan in 1904 to support Japanese ambitions in China. The territories targeted by Japan are occupied by… Russia. This is the time when all the world powers are beating China, devastated and powerless. The ultramodern ships of the Japanese fleet have just been delivered by the Vickers, directly from England. It was a humiliating disaster for Nicholas II, who had to withdraw his troops, abandon his strongholds and mourn his fleet, sunk from the bottom to the last ship, reduced to nothing.
They diplomatically isolated the Czar for the Russo-Japanese War, and the US financed Japan.
To set the record straight, it was the work of Jacob Schiff, Kuhn’s bank manager, Loeb and Co, who succeeded the Rothschild House, from which Schiff originally came. His power was such that he got the states with colonial possessions in Asia to support the creation of the Japanese Empire, while the latter tended towards xenophobia, and Europe already felt the effects of anti-white xenophobia.
The best fighters, now trained as revolutionary agents, arrived in Petrograd from prisoner of war camps; they were sent there from America, with the agreement of Japan, obtained by the people who had financed this country. Thanks to the organized defeat of the Czar’s Army, the Russo-Japanese War brought about the 1905 revolution, which, although premature, almost succeeded; and even if it was not victorious, it still created the political conditions required for the victory of 1917.
…/… Have you read Trotsky’s biography? Remember his first revolutionary period. He is still a young man; after his escape from Siberia, he lived for some time among the emigrants, in London, Paris and Switzerland. Lenin, Plekhanov, Martov, and other leaders saw him as just another promising recruit. But already during the first split, he dared to behave with independence by trying to become the arbiter of reunification. In 1905, he was twenty-five years old, and returned to Russia, alone, without a party of his own, and without any organization of his own. So read the relations of the 1905 revolution that were not “redressed” by Stalin, for example those of Lunatcharsky, who was not a Trotskyist.
Trotsky was the main figure in Petrograd during the revolution. That was the reality. He alone emerged from the revolution with growing popularity and influence. Neither Lenin, Martov, nor Plekhanov gained popularity. They just keep the audience they had, and even lose a little of it. How and why does Trotsky rise, the unknown, suddenly gaining greater power than the oldest and most influential revolutionaries? It’s very simple, he gets married. With him arrives in Russia his wife, Sedova. Do you know who she is? It is allied with the Jivotovskis, linked to the Warburg bankers, associates and relatives of Jacob Schiff, that is to say the financial group which, as I have just said, also financed the revolution of 1905. This is why Trotsky suddenly rose to the top of the revolutionary hierarchy. And this is also where you find the key to his true personality.
2) The War of 14-18
2.1 Schiff will arm the central powers in Europe
In the 1910s, Schiff armed the central powers, enemies of Russia, Germany, Austria, Hungary, but also the Ottoman Empire, in preparation for the first war. When the conflict erupted in 1914, he also lent money to France to arm itself against these same central powers, while recommending that everyone make peace as soon as possible. He eventually used his influence over Woodrow Wilson to pressure the US into intervention as well.
Jacob Henry Schiff, in collaboration with the German Kaiser, had been preparing the financing of the Russian Revolution for a decade.
Jacob Henry Schiff, in collaboration with the German Kaiser, had been preparing the financing of the Russian Revolution for a decade. In 1917, the rebellion engulfed all of Russia and paralyzed the Eastern Front, extending the war by two years. The states of Europe are ruined, but we will lend them a few hundred million more.
Schiff invested heavily in Lenin’s Bolshevik government,
favoring its victory over the other revolutionary factions. The Bolshevik debt, incurred on Wall Street, will be honored in the 20s and I will explain how. Jacob Schiff’s daughter became the wife of Kuhn and Co’s partner, Félix Warburg.
Iraq’s oil project transported by rail to Germany.
One of the ideas of the Kaiser Wilhelm II, still advised by Max Warburg, was to access Mesopotamian oil by building a railway line from Berlin to Basra (today’s Iraq). The British Crown, whose fleet abandoned coal in 1904 in favor of oil, cannot allow the monopoly of its Royal Dutch Shell to crumble. In 1914, a few months before the project was completed, the war was declared under a pretext, the assassination of Duke Franz Ferdinand. Bankers on all sides are rubbing their hands. For them, it’s Christmas!..
2.2 Morgan House financed half of the American war effort
J. Piermont’s son and successor, Jack Morgan, responded by asking Morgan Remington and Winchester’s clients to increase weapons production. He decided that the United States should enter World War I. Pressed by the Carnégie Foundation and other oligarchic bodies, Wilson gave in. As Charles Tansill wrote in “America goes to war”: “Even before the powder speaks, the French firm of the Rothschild brothers cabled Morgan and Co in New York suggesting the floating of a $100 million loan, a substantial portion of which would be left in the United States to pay French expenses for purchases of American products.”
Morgan funded half of the U.S. war effort, while receiving commissions for introducing subcontractors such as General Electric, Du Pont, American steels, Kennecott and ASARCO. All of them were Morgan’s clients.
2.3 Financing German war reparations
The American people will pay with their taxes the German reparations of the first war to the big companies that organized the conflict from one end to the other.
At the time of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, severe reparations were demanded by the allies to Germany and its allies. Among these, Royal Dutch Shell, an oil company owned by the British Crown, receives oil fields from all over the Middle East as a gift. 75% of the cash needed for the heavy payments imposed on Germany is lent to the Berlin government by US banks including the Federal Reserve Bank led by Paul Warburg. It is therefore the American people who will pay with their taxes the German reparations of the first war to the large companies who organized the conflict from one end to the other. This is contributing to the creation of the massive national debt that assures banks of their ascendancy in American politics. This casts a prosaic light on the “miracle” of the German recovery, and on the legendary effectiveness of the Nazi regime, which we continue to be boasted of until today in various forms.
The money stolen from one citizen, the American, has been used to deprive another citizen, the German, and the governments of both countries incur heavy interests, while a huge fleet of ships seemed to change hands.
The Hamburg-Amerika line has as its bank (and therefore creditor) the M.M. Warburg of Hamburg. As part of the “repairs”, Warburg himself organized his transfer to the trust of Averell Harriman and George Herbert Walker, whose American arm of his bank, held by his brothers Félix and Paul Warburg, was partially owned. Let’s summarize the money journey. The American taxpayer pays his tax, which is collected at the Federal Reserve Bank of Paul Warburg et al. This money then goes on loan to Germany, in fact to the Reichsbank of Max Warburg et al. The money once again passes to Harriman’s Union Bank, of which Felix Warburg is a major shareholder. This money (or what is left of it) is then used to complete the transaction transferring a huge fleet of ships, the Hamburg-Amerika, from the M.M. Warburg to the Union Bank, still partially owned by the Warburg. As a result, the money stolen from one citizen, the American, has been used to deprive another citizen, the German, and the governments of both countries incur heavy interests, while a huge fleet of ships seemed to change hands. To complete the loop, in 1933 the same Max Warburg became director of the board of directors of the Hamburg-Amerika line.
2.4 Fraud on the back of the French in 1926
Despite the greater reserve and discretion that international bankers now surround themselves with in order to hide their ripples, the technique continues. Austria was dismembered following the Great War and the Rothschild of Vienna was in a poor financial position. But it wasn’t long. When Poincaré, 8 years later, prepared a law for the stabilization of the franc with the Banque de France, the Rothschild of Paris, director of the Banque de France (private bank), knew how to warn his cousin in Vienna. The latter hastened to buy francs on the downside, to sell them on the upside after the adoption of the law by the French parliament; in less than a week, he had remade all his fortune… on the back of the French!
3. The Russian revolution and Soviet power.
At the end of the 19th century, only Russia failed to heed the financiers’ call because the Czar refused to create a central bank ruled inevitably by the families of the Anglo-Saxon financial oligarchy.
3.1 The Selection of Russian Revolutionaries
We now know how they did it. They recruited among Marx’s bad students, and Lenin was recognized by Marx himself as one of his bad students.
Trotsky in January 1917 was trained in guerrilla warfare at the property of the “STANDARD OIL COMPANY” of ROCKEFELLER, New Jersey. Trotskyist rebels were financed by the Anglo-Saxon financial oligarchy to eliminate the regime of the Czar of Russia.
Lenin was financed by German bankers.
In 1916, Jacob Schiff, president of the “Khun Loeb & Co.Bank”, was chosen at a “B’NAI B’RITH” rally in New York as president of the “Zionist Movement” (revolutionary) in Russia.
On January 13, 1917, the Jew LEON TROTSKI (aka Bronstein) arrived in the United States and received an American passport. He was occasionally seen entering the very luxurious residence of JACOB SCHIFF. *Schiff and Trotsky then discussed the Zionist troubles in Russia and the lessons learned from the failure to overthrow the tsar. Jacob Schiff financed the training of “Trotskyist rebels” composed mainly of Jews from New York City neighborhoods.
Their training took place at the property of the “STANDARD OIL COMPANY” of ROCKEFELLER, New Jersey. When they were trained enough to lead guerrillas, the Trotskyist rebels left the United States with $20 million in gold that Jacob Schiff had given them. The steamboat “S.S. Kristianiafjord” took them to Russia to prepare for the advent of the “Bolshevik revolution”.
Document: The steam chartered by JACOB SCHIFF was stopped on April 3, 1917 by Canadian authorities in Halifax, Nova Scotia. One would think that the Illuminati plan was doomed to failure. But Jacob Schiff used his influence and that of his friends the Illuminati in the American government and in England so that the trip could resume shortly thereafter. On arriving in Europe, Trotsky traveled directly to Switzerland to meet Lenin, Stalin, Kagonowitch and Litwinow to work out their strategy.
It is interesting to note here that the eminent representatives and agents of all nations participating in the war could meet openly in the neutral country, Switzerland. Switzerland has existed, in its present form, since 1815, the year of the Congress of Vienna, when it was guaranteed permanent neutrality.
Random? Or is such a small and secure place in the center of Europe not perfectly suited to the plans of those who live by war?
The conspirators were then forced to solve the following problem: how to get from Switzerland to Russia with the rebels and their weapons? The solution was given by the ROTHSCHILD agent, head of the German secret police: MAX WARBURG. He packed them all into a sealed railway wagon and took charge of their crossing to the Russian border. When the train stopped for the first time in Germany, two German officers came up to escort it. They had received orders from General ERICH LUDENDORFF.
Max Warburg was the brother of Paul Warburg, the first president of the Federal Reserve Bank.
In July 1917, the plot supported by the international bankers suffered an initial setback, LENIN had to flee with a few others to Finland. By November 1917, however, their efforts were definitely successful.
3.2 The Bolshevik Revolution.
If we take into account the financial support that was added to the training received in New York, it is no longer surprising. In the bloody civil war that followed the Bolshevik Revolution, Lenin was the undisputed leader of political activities and Trotsky was in charge of the military part of the organization which was, in fact, the “Red Army”. The name “Red Army” was not a name given incorrectly or found by chance. The Bolshevik “Red Army” under Trotsky was the lethal instrument of international bankers, themselves under the domination of the Rothschilds (the literal translation of this word: red sign). Whether that army carried the red emblem or sign, it could only be adequate.
Meanwhile, and this became a historical fact, most of the rebels under Lenin were Jews.
The Times also wrote on March 29, 1919 that “one of the most interesting features of the Bolshevik movement is the high percentage of non-Russian men in the leadership team. Of the approximately thirty commissioners or leaders who make up the Bolshevik central apparatus, 75% at least are Jews.”
According to the writings of General A. Nechvolodov, the French secret services found that Jacob Schiff had given another twelve million dollars directly to the Russian revolutionaries. The general cites as other financiers of the Bolshevik Revolution: Felix Warburg, Otto Khan, Mortimer Schiff, Jerome H. Hanauer, Max Breitung in the United States and Max Warburg, Olaf Aschburg and Jivlovsky in Europe.
Russian Ambassador to the United States Bakhmetiev explains that after the Bolshevik victory, 600 million gold rubles were transferred from Russia to the Khun Loeb Bank in New York between 1918 and 1922.
3.3 Contacts between Wall Street and the Bolsheviks
Very intense contacts connected the Wall Street elite with Russia from the late 19th century. In fact, Rockefeller and his colleagues were not going to take any chances and make sure that they funded and armed both sides of the Bolshevik Revolution. When the Russian Revolution stabilized around Stalin in the early 1920s, he gave Baku a gift to a colleague and business partner of Rockefeller, a certain Averell Harriman, one of whose banks, the Brown Brothers Harriman was presided over by Percy Rockefeller.
…/…While the Bolsheviks controlled only a tiny fraction of Russian territory (a plot they passed close to losing in the summer of 1918), the American League to Aid and Cooperate with Russia was organized in Washington D.C. to increase support for the group of Lenin and Trotsky, already supported by Jacob Schiff. It is a consortium of General Electric, Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, and above all, the Federal Reserve Bank, in short, a Warburg lobby.
…/… You also mentioned the Bolshevik Revolution. Again – you may already know this and many listeners – you will see that a lot of the funding comes from Kuhn Loeb and Co as well as some Illuminati characters. This money was used by the Bolsheviks to finance the revolution. At that time, a number of agreements and things that were undertaken allowed these people to succeed. Many aspects of this case have been behind the scenes.
…/… Antony Sutton explains all these connections between Wall Street firms and the key figures that led to the Bolshevik Revolution, by the fact that Wall Street firms aim to establish themselves in the Soviet market in order to exploit Russia commercially. The American International Corporation, which is an organization primarily composed of the interests of J.P. Morgan, James Stillman, President of the National City Bank of New York, and the Rockefellers, will be one of the first to establish the bank.
3.4 Ukraine in the Chaos of War 1917-1921
Between 1917 and 1921, Ukraine found itself in the midst of an improbable maelstrom born of the war of all against all.
Indeed, during these five years, all political currents, or very few, all aspirations, all ambitions, oppose it and clash with it in a series of inextricable wars, from which it is difficult to give a clear account.
Try it instead.
Year 17, from one Revolution to the next
It all began with the February 17 Revolution, which encouraged the peoples of Russia to assert their autonomy. The following month, a People’s Republic of Ukraine was proclaimed in Kyiv. The leading Tsentralna Rada supported the Kerensky offensive of the summer of 17, because Russia – despite the change of regime – remained engaged in World War I alongside the allies.
Unfortunately, this offensive was an absolute disaster, which immediately led to the disintegration of the Russian army and institutions. Now the October Revolution can happen. And it happens.
In December 1917, the Ukrainian Bolsheviks proclaimed a republic – another republic – which immediately engaged the government of the Kiev Rada set up only six months earlier. Faced with this new adversary, the Rada proclaimed the independence of Ukraine on 22 January 1918.
But, supported by the anarchists of Nestor Makhno – who organized the self-government of the Free Territories of southern Ukraine – the Red Guards drove without difficulty the meager troops of Kiev which they seized on 9 February 17 (from Kiev, not from the troops, they were struggling).
Taking advantage of the situation, Romanians invaded Bessarabia while units of White Guards gathered in Ukraine to march towards the Don mouths.
Does the situation seem complex?
It’s nothing yet.
Year 18, under the sign of the Central Powers
Lenin – faced with enormous difficulties – then had a vital need to make peace with Germany, with which the war continued despite the Revolution. Even to pay for this peace at a high price. This was done with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (signed on 9 February 1918), which left Ukraine in the German sphere of influence.
This is why, cornered by the successes of the Red Army, the Rada decided to call on German and Austrian troops. The latter were bitter and well equipped, and had no difficulty in rejecting the Bolsheviks to eastern Ukraine. Kiev was resumed on 1 March.
But has peace returned to Ukraine?
That is not true, because on the one hand the Germans support General Pavel Skoropadsky’s coup d’état against the authorities of the Rada (29 April) while, on the other hand, in the countryside, self-defense groups organize themselves to fight against the regime of Skoropadsky, Hetmanat. Convergence of struggles again, the anarchists of Nestor Makhno join them in this fight.
The situation is getting more complicated. And it’s not over yet…
Year 19, Polish, Romanian, French: all in Ukraine
The defeat of Germany, consummated on 11 November 1918, changed the situation again. And radically, again.
Thus, from December 1918, the Hetmanat of Skoropasky was overthrown and the People’s Republic of Ukraine restored… to be immediately confronted with the assaults of the Red Army, which once again took everything in its path. Kiev was retaken on 5 February 1919 and the government of the Ukrainian SSR moved there again… The government of the Republic of Ukraine, now led by Semyon Petliura, retreated to western Ukraine.
Did the Bolsheviks win this time?
For in the spring and summer of 19, they faced a powerful counter-offensive by the Whites, supported by French troops… landed in Odessa and Sevastopol.
However, they will leave Ukraine after only a few months, overpowered by the abuses of their allies, the lack of resources allocated to them and the severe failures they suffer.
Once again in a position to win, the Reds betrayed and liquidated Makhno’s anarchists, who then took refuge in Paris.
In 1919, the war was exported to Galicia
That same year, 1919, the peoples of the former Central Empires entered the dance in turn.
Thus, the Ukrainians of Galicia – a territory that had previously belonged to the Habsburg Empire – proclaimed an ephemeral People’s Republic of Western Ukraine, which they wished to join to Ukraine. Of course, Galicia’s large Polish minority did not hear it that way, and war soon broke out between the two parties.
Although the union between Ukraine and the People’s Republic of Western Ukraine was proclaimed on 22 January 1919, it was the Poles who won the war after a year of heavy fighting, succeeding in connecting Galicia to Poland. Lviv, pardon Lwów, was Polish until 1939.
1920, towards a restoration of Greater Poland?
Condemned to certain disappearance because of the successes of the Red Army, the Republic of Ukraine under Semyon Petliura turned to Poland, even if it approved the latter’s annexation of Galicia.
So, in the spring of 1920, a powerful Polish army took Kiev on 7 May to resettle Semyon Petliura… before the Red Army once again counterattacked to drive him out. Defeated, the Poles abandoned Kiev – resumed for the umpteenth time – before being driven back to Warsaw by the Cossacks of Budienny…
At the end of 1920, the Bolsheviks finally crushed the last troops of Petliura, who had to take refuge in Poland.
Then the Reds captured Crimea where the White armies commanded by General Wrangel had entrenched.
When the year 1921 began, the Red Army remained alone.
In less than five years it has faced and defeated German and Austrian armies, white armies, anarchists, Cossacks, Ukrainian nationalists, Poles, Romanians, French…
source: Storia Mundi FaceBook 02/03/2022
3.5 The Great Famine of 1932-1933
The Great Ukrainian Famine of 1932-1933 Nicolas Werth In Twentieth Century. History Review 2014/1 (No. 121), pages 77-93
The great famine in Ukraine in 1932-1933 provoked and still provokes much debate. Beyond the questions surrounding the very process of this tragedy, the question is when does starvation begin and why? What responsibilities does Stalin have in triggering and prolonging it? The Holodomor, to borrow a phrase from the Ukrainian neologism, divides Russian and Ukrainian historians. The recently opened archives, however, once again shed light on this mass crime, the genesis and the course of which are recounted by Nicolas Werth.
Our knowledge of the great famine that struck, in 1932-1933, Ukraine and Kuban, this rich agricultural region of the North Caucasus, mostly populated by Ukrainians, although administratively attached to the Republic of Russia, has improved considerably over the last twenty years. Today, this major catastrophe in 20th century European history is finally beginning to be recognized in its own right as the first act in a terrible cycle of violence perpetrated, between the early 1930s and the end of the Second World War, by the two great totalitarian regimes, Nazism and Stalinism, against the civilian populations of a huge region in the heart of Europe that the historian Timothy Snyder rightly defined as the Bloodlands?
Stalin wants to develop the industrialization of the Soviet Union
In 1921, when Lenin instituted the NEP, it was a matter of reintroducing a bit of capitalism to save a communist revolution in the midst of an economic slump. This policy was successful. But when Stalin took over the Soviet Union in 1924, he closed the parenthesis by nationalizing it.
He feared that the persistence of a market economy, even a limited one, would jeopardize the building of socialism. Moreover, he feared that the freedoms granted to minorities, particularly Ukrainians, would favor a resurgence of nationalism.
Above all, he had set himself a goal that nothing would make him deviate from: the industrialization of the USSR. This “Great Turning Point”, announced at the end of 1929, triggered the Holodomor. In order to industrialize, Russia needed machine tools that it had to obtain from abroad. Stalin decided that the massive export of cereals from Ukraine would finance their acquisition. By 1930, the government abruptly took 30% of the grain, then 41% the following year!
Ukraine opposed the collectivization of land
Stalin launched “shock brigades” on Ukraine consisting of komsomols, members of the Communist Youth, and thugs from the lumpenproletariat (“ragged proletariat”). The farms were searched and then destroyed. Their occupants were stripped of their smallest grain reserves. Seeds were confiscated, making the next harvest impossible.
In a climate of terror, the political police, the GPU-NKVD, increased the number of arrests. Local communist leaders, seeking to protect the population, were themselves sent to the gulag. One of them sent Stalin a letter in an attempt to move him. The Vojd’s response was scathing: “I advise you to join the Writers’ Union. There you can write your fables and the fools will read you.”
Acts of cannibalism
On August 7, 1932, the implacable “law of ears” was promulgated: keeping a few grains of wheat or rye on oneself became punishable by death. On 22 January, a circular deprived the farmers of their passports. The trap was gradually closing in on the Soviet republic. Army barricades blocked the roads.
And during the freezing winter of 1932-1933, the famine, which had been threatening for months, broke out. Held by force in their looted province, cohorts of starving people roamed in search of food. Horses, dogs, cats, plant roots were eaten, then children… Acts of cannibalism multiplied and the youngest, the most vulnerable, were the first victims. Impaired people starved and froze in their homes or on city sidewalks. Many committed suicide. Ukraine became an open-air death house.
Finally, one of the natural disasters that caused the famine of 1933 prompted Soviet scientist Pavel Lukianenko to create new varieties of wheat, which was the origin of the Soviet Green Revolution.
Kazakhstan’s Great Famine
3.6 The Success of the Industrial Development Plan in 1935
We have just seen that the export of cereals from Ukraine financed the beginning of the heavy Soviet industry with the consequence of the famine of 1932-1933 caused by an unusual drought on the one hand and on the other hand by the criminal Soviet repression against peasants who refused to collectivize their lands. The deportation of the peasants was also aimed at providing labor to the major industrial development projects.
Did the Soviet Union develop its industry on its own, without external aid? It is not logical to believe this fable, as the Anglo-Saxon bankers had already helped the Russian revolutionaries to take power. Their plan was to conquer Russia’s wealth, but not just natural resources. Natural wealth must be transformed by the work of man and machine into commercial wealth capable of exceptional gains and profits.
It is therefore logical to search for information which shows that the Anglo-Saxon bankers, the Americans, participated in the creation of Soviet industrial complexes, especially in the Urals and Siberia. These documents are accessible via the Internet. We will see, first, American aid to the industry and, second, American intervention in the exploitation of Baku oil.
The industrial development of the young Soviet Union.
A Great Construction Site of the Soviet First Five-Year Plan: Kuznetskstroy
author: Jean-Paul Depretto Dans Genèses 2000/2 (no. 39), pages 5 to 26
abstract from extracts from the document:
The construction of the Ural-Kuznetsk Combination is one of the achievements most praised by official propaganda: it shares this honor with the Dnieper hydroelectric power station, the tractors factories of Kharkov, Stalingrad and Chelyabinsk, the car company of Nizhnii Novgorod, and a few others. The case of Magnitogorsk is now well known, thanks to the work of Stephen Kotkin
We would like to examine here the formation of the workers’ community, formed ex nihilo, of the Kuznetsk (Western Siberia) pioneer front. The Kuznetskstroy yard employed 17,000 people in December 1930, 50,000 in October 1931.
It gave rise to a “mushroom city”, Stalinsk, whose population increased 12.5 times between 1929 and 1933, from 12,700 inhabitants to 159,500.
Stalinsk is a typical example of these factory cities, born of Soviet industrialization.
On May 15, 1930, the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party adopted a resolution which stated: “In the coming period, the industrialization of the country cannot be based solely on the coal and metallurgical base of the South. The creation in the East of a second coal and metallurgical center […] is a vital necessity for the rapid industrialization of the country”
Strategic arguments may have played a role in the decision: Ukraine is exposed to invasions, while the Urals and Siberia are immune from attack; indeed, propaganda brochures mention the role of Magnitogorsk and Kuznetsk in creating an arms industry
The Soviet leaders wanted to take advantage of this clean slate to install the most modern techniques from the outset, so they called on the help of the United States, as in Magnitogorsk.
The design of the Kuznetsk plant was drawn up by an American design firm, Freyn of Chicago, whose representatives worked with the Russian specialists of Gipromez (State Institute for Metal Plant Design). Freyn sent engineers to the site, both involved in construction and helping to launch steel production. The choice of the “American model” implied a resolute option in favor of the very large enterprise, as the objectives set in June 1930 show: in 1932-1933, the production of pig iron had to amount to one million tons per year, against six hundred thousand for the largest unit built before the Revolution.
In 1931, the authorities were even more ambitious: the blast furnaces in Kuznetsk were expected to yield 1.2 million tons, a level that was only reached in 1935. At the end of 1936, the Ural-Kuznetsk Combined had a capacity of 3.89 million tons, i.e.:
Magnitogorsk: 2.15 = 14.9% of Soviet cast iron production
Kuznetsk: 1.74 = 12.1% of Soviet cast iron production
The imitation of the best American achievements did not begin during the first five-year plan: specialists practiced it in Ukraine as early as 1910 and it continued for the next twenty years. The transfer of these techniques to Siberia, on the other hand, was a new phenomenon; for the authorities, it took on a special meaning: “America will meet Siberia. Herzen dreamed of it a hundred years ago. And now we, the Bolsheviks, are organizing this meeting… Of course, building in Siberia, creating a socialist America there will be difficult.”
In short, it was a matter of showing that the Bolsheviks were able to wrest old Russia from its backwardness and indolence, acclimating to it American efficiency and speed.
In April 1932, the first blast furnace (820 m3) was completed, against the advice of the American consultants, who considered the Soviets too pressed: still I. P. Bardine had obtained from the authorities a delay of three months. In the same year, the second blast furnace (820 m3), two Martin furnaces, a giant blooming, imported from the United States and a rolling mill were commissioned: now Kuznetsk produced both cast iron, steel, and rails. The second phase lasted longer and allowed even more powerful installations to be built: the two blast furnaces lit in 1934 had a capacity of 1,160 m³ (as much as the most advanced American models).
According to the Russian historian A. S. Moskovskii, the composite was completed “essentially” in 1937, supplying 10% of the Soviet cast iron (9.1% of steel and 8.6% of laminates).
In early 1933, due to the balance-of-payments deficit, the Soviet government did not renew the contracts of top American specialists. Other Westerners, both managers and workers, ceased to be entitled to special stores for foreigners; their wages were reduced, or paid in rubles instead of currencies. Not accepting these new conditions, many of them left: the withdrawal of these qualified personnel imposed heavy responsibilities on the Soviet cadres and aggravated the difficulties.
In Western Siberia, two thirds of the special settlers were of Siberian origin. Kuznetskstroy seems to have been an exception to this rule, as in July-August 1931 the yard received a large contingent from the Moscow region: 4,617 families, with 22,077 persons.
By attacking the “kulaks”, treated as pestiferous, the rulers have designated scapegoats for the popular retribution and made it very difficult to establish solidarity between “builders”. It is time to reflect more deeply on the role of the Soviet state in the formation of social identities
All in all, the fundamental political objectives of the first three five-year plans: re-industrialization of the country, creation of a powerful heavy industry, formation of a large working proletariat were achieved. They will later contribute to the victorious resistance against the Hitler invader. But these results were achieved at an immense human cost, far above all forecasts, which was expressed by the sacrifice of hundreds of thousands of kulaks, by the failure of agricultural plans and consumption plans.
The five-year plans and the efforts required of the public have resulted in:
- an increase in industrial production
- very slow development of agricultural production.
Summary from several documents:
The abolition of the agricultural tax system in 1872 marked the beginning of the rapid development of the oil industry. The lack of domestic capital forced the Tsarist government to attract foreign capital, and in 1872 foreigners were given the same rights as Russian subjects with regard to hydrocarbon exploitation. Since then, Baku’s oil industry has experienced a spectacular inflow of foreign capital, which transformed the city into an oil Klondike whose reputation quickly spilled over Russia’s borders.
In May 1883, one of the largest oil companies in Baku, the Caspian and Black Sea Oil Company, led by famous Parisian bankers, the Rothschild brothers, began operations in the region. Soon, it shared exclusive Russian oil with the Nobel brothers’ company. It is interesting to note that the chief engineer of Rothschild was David Landau.
Among the leaders of this new industry was the Nobel Society of the brothers, founded by a Swedish entrepreneur, Ludwig Nobel, and Baron P. Bildering. Soon, the company exercised a monopoly on oil production and export to Russia
In order to export oil to the international market, the Rothschilds financed the construction of a pipeline between Baku and Batumi, which was completed in 1907.
The Rothschilds’ activities in Russia and present-day Azerbaijan ceased in 1912, and they sold their business to Royal Dutch Shell, a Dutch-British company.
Document: Royal Dutch Shell
By the late 1880s, under the leadership of Frederick Lane, a businessman acting as an intermediary between the Samuel brothers and the Parisian branch of the Rothschild family, which had interests in oil production in the Russian Caucasus, they were interested in oil trading, which they sold in the Far East, thus breaking the monopoly of Standard Oil of Rockefeller.
In 1918, the rich Russian oil fields of Baku located on the Caspian Sea were the object of intense political and military efforts by Germany but also Great Britain, which preemptively occupied them for a few critical weeks, thus denying the German General Staff access to vital oil resources. The blockade of Baku was the last decisive blow against Germany, which demanded peace a few weeks later, only a few months after it had appeared that Germany had triumphed over the Allied forces. Oil had proven itself to be at the center of geopolitics.
Allies’ security is at stake. If the Allies do not wish to lose the war, then, at the time of the great German offensive, they must not let France lack an oil that is as necessary to it as blood in the battles to come.
Rockefeller’s Standard Oil responded to Clemenceau’s call by providing Marshal Foch’s forces with an indispensable supply of oil. Lacking sufficient Romanian supplies and denied access to Baku, the blocked trucks were unable to transport oil to German forces, which were unable to carry out the final offensive in 1918, despite the German-Russian agreement to end hostilities in Brest-Litovsk.
With 11 million barrels per year – one-third of US output – Baku is already a major source of supply for West European black gold, and a formidable competitor for US companies, starting with Rockefeller’s Standard Oil, which is desperate to enter. Fifteen years later, around 1900, the city’s 3,000 oil wells alone accounted for 50% of world oil production, making rivalries between big companies even more acute.
But the turning point came four decades later, in 1873, when, while in Baku, where his brother Ludwig had sent him to buy wood for rifle butts, Robert Nobel took the initiative to acquire one of the countless oil refineries that had emerged in the region since the 1830s. In St. Petersburg, where he leads the giant steel and armaments company founded by the family in 1837, Ludwig Nobel can only bow before his brother’s “coup de force.”
This is the start of a formidable industrial adventure that, in the space of a few years, will tax the Nobel laureates among the world’s leading oil producers.
While, from the start, the transport of the black gold was done by means of wooden barrels transported by boat to Astrakan, then transferred on barges that go up the Volga, the industrialist radically innovated by launching, in 1878, the first tanker in history. A hundred more followed. They can supply, without breaking the load, all the major consumption centers located in Russia.
As a Nobel prize-winner, oil could not fail to stir up the lusts of other major oil companies. From the 1880s onwards, Nobel prizes had two formidable competitors: the Rothschilds and Rockefeller’s Standard Oil.
For years now, the Caucasus has become the center of the “Nina” organization, a vast operation to print and disseminate Lenin’s revolutionary texts. From Baku, they reach all of Russia using illegal boats and trains chartered by oil companies, including Nobel’s.
From 1903, insurrectional strikes broke out in Baku. Their main organizer is a certain Joseph Djugachvili, better known as “Stalin”. As Bolshevik leader for the Caucasus, he increased his fist operations against the interests of the Rothschilds and Nobel laureates.
As early as 1905, the Nobel Prize winners began to redeploy to Romania, where fabulous deposits have recently been discovered. Wise decision: World War I and then the revolution of 1917 dealt a serious blow to the Baku oil industry. They also allow Standard Oil to finally set foot in the Caucasus.
In November 1917, fearing for their safety, Emmanuel and his Nobel family secretly left Saint Petersburg disguised as peasants and managed to reach Paris…
In 1920, it was there, since their suite at the Hôtel Meurice, that they negotiated with Standard Oil the sale of their oil assets. It is up to the Americans to deal with the new masters of the country. Standard Oil was able to hold its position until the late 1920s. Until Stalin, who became the sole master of the USSR, put a definitive end to foreign concessions.
As for our main concern, let us sum up the intervention of the Rockefellers and the Rothschilds (we have seen in the file 1 dear enemies: who are they, that the Rockefellers’ wealth belongs in the vast majority to the Rothschilds)
- 1883: Rothschild Paris settles in Baku and founds the largest oil company.
- 1912: As part of the preparations for the First World War, the Bank of Paris withdrew and sold their business to Royal Dutch Shell, a Dutch-British company controlled by the London family bank. This also avoids Rockefeller’s monopoly on oil.
- 1918: English troops block Baku and thus German oil supplies. The French army was delivered by Rockefeller from the USA and won the war.
- Then Standard Oil bought from the Russians, after the Bolshevik Revolution, 50% of the immense Caucasian oil fields, although they were officially nationalized.
- 1920: Nobel laureates sell all their oil interests in Russia to the Americans
- In the late 1920s, Stalin nationalized the oil companies in Baku to ensure the economic development of the Soviet Union.
- In 1927, Standard Oil built the first refinery in Russia, then made a deal with the Russians to sell their oil to European markets, and passed $75 million to the Bolsheviks.
The history of Baku’s oil is well known and represents an example of the Creative Destruction at the heart of the capitalist system and the concentration of economic and political power in the hands of the Anglo-Saxon financial oligarchy.
There remains one episode to be closely examined: the bitter struggle between the Nobel family and the Rothschild family for the conquest of Baku oil.
Document: Rothschild, Rockefeller, Lenin and The Nobel Brothers
Oil companies owned by the Rothschild family entered the scene in Baku followed by Rockefeller’s gigantic Standard Oil Company. This heated competition for control of the world’s top producing region. Blowout production decreased as the equipment was improved. By 1884 Rothschild and Nobel were pumping as much oil from the Baku Oil Fields as Rockefeller was from all of his holdings in the United States. By 1901, Baku produced more than half of the world’s oil.
Rockefeller and Rothschild were competing as the world’s foremost oil and banking barons. Rockefeller was determined to do in Russia what he had succeeded in doing in the United States cornering the refining and distribution of oil. But the two competitors finally realized that competition was not a good thing. The more oil wells they drilled, the more oil was produced, the more the price of oil per barrel fell.
It was decided that the world’s markets would geographically be carved up, with the two barons, Rockefeller and Rothschild, each having their separate, well-defined shares. Moreover, limits would be put on oil produced globally so as to keep the market price as high as possible. Under this arrangement, both Rothschild and Rockefeller would benefit. Of course, all other competition would be squelched, driven out of business, including the Nobel Oil Company in Baku.
The Russian Finance Minister knew of Rockefeller’s reputation for buying politicians and destroying competition, and convinced the Tzar to keep Standard Oil and Rockefeller out of Russia. Rockefeller knew the only way he was going to get in was to depose Tzar Nicholas II. As a solution the Rockefeller-Rothschild cartel funded the Bolshevik Communist revolution of 1917 to get control of the Baku oil. Rockefeller’s puppets, Lenin, Trotsky, and Stalin, his reigned over the vast Soviet Russia empire.
Lenin, following orders from the Rockefeller-Rothschild cartel, seized power in Baku and Branobel’s oil business in Azerbaijan was nationalized. Hundreds of thousands of residents were slaughtered, especially the families of the oil company executives, engineers, and chief workers. Their luxurious mansions and homes were plundered, wives and children raped, tortured and murdered. The oil derricks and facilities of Baku were set on fire-torched.
Whoosh! Instantly, one of the world’s top oil producing regions was no more. The Nobel brothers fled for their lives back to Sweden, selling almost half of their shares in Branobel’s to Standard Oil , so they could have the same property rights. Naturally, the Baku oil assets of Rothschild and Rockefeller were lost as well, but this was according to plan. That plan dictated that Russia would, during the Communist era, not be a world player in oil.
This closing of Baku immediately resulted in an astronomical increase in the global price of oil. Rockefeller and Rothschild were well compensated for the temporary loss of their Baku assets. “Creative Destruction” had brought fabulous riches to both Rothschild and Rockefeller.
We have indicated that in 1920, the Nobel family sold all its oil activities from Romania and Baku to Rockefeller and its Standard Oil and to Rothschild and their partners in Shell.
Document: U.S. oil policy towards the U.S.S.R., 1917-1927.
author: MARIE-FRANCE TOINET
Caucasian oil was nationalized again on May 28, 1920, when the Bolsheviks took over the Caucasus. Free from foreign domination, it only attracts more lusts, already exacerbated by multiple factors. The deposits identified are known to be abundant, which would meet the most immediate needs. Their geographical location designates them as preferred suppliers of Mediterranean markets, and it is all the more useful to control them as an indiscriminate sale of production would risk breaking prices. Finally, oil companies are keen to profit from the investments they continue to make, even after nationalization.
Indeed, trusts that believe in the imminent collapse of the Soviet regime – and will always underestimate its strength – are reinforcing their Caucasian positions.
“The nationalization [which terrifies the small owners] makes it possible to collect cheaply Russian property titles that we hope will soon be recognized by the “reasonable” government that will succeed the Bolsheviks. 3” Thus Royal Dutch, already owner, acquires concessions or properties belonging to Russians at low prices. On 30 July 1920, Standard Oil of New Jersey bought 51 per cent of the shares of the Nobel Brothers, which controlled about 40 per cent of the production before the war. These are extremely important investments, undertaken despite the risks, and which must, at all costs, be returned from the Russians. As the regime appears to be gradually strengthening, Teagle, president of the Standard, is concerned about the attitude of the State Department.
He is not in favor of intervention, nor is he in favor of establishing more cordial relations. The major and quasi-revolutionary strikes that followed the war, which are believed to be Bolshevik-inspired, make him fear the worst: it is the “red fear”. Lenin may have wished, in an October 1919 interview with the Chicago Daily News, “an economic agreement with all countries, but especially with America,” but the US government has kept a haughty silence.
The Hague Conference
The Russians are once again proposing their unique concession plan. The British, who were comfortable with the plan because they thought they could dominate the concession through Royal Dutch Shell, tried to convince their French and Belgian allies of its interest and advantages. The French seem to be about to buckle.
Standard Oil Policy
The latter act of international diplomatic conferences precedes a period of hardening. Governments have failed, and it is now the companies that have taken center stage, particularly Standard Oil of New Jersey.
For the next few years, Standard Oil was solely responsible for its own policy, which was the United States oil policy. This is because of the will of the government which, after the failures of Genoa and The Hague, chose not to intervene directly in this area. He believes that negotiations between governments are doomed to failure and prefers to let companies do as they see fit. They are infinitely freer than he would be to use any necessary means. It is then possible for him to appear to safeguard the great principles and to refuse any contact with an evil regime, while discreetly supporting the action of Standard Oil.
Negotiations continued in 1925, 1926 and 1927 with the Soviets, but no agreement was reached. On the one hand, Western demands still exceed the concessions to which the Soviets are prepared. On the other hand, the two big trusts’ fluctuating and often contradictory positions undermine the effectiveness of the discussions. Finally, in late 1927, Standard Oil admitted definitively the loss of its Russian investments. It prefers to use other, easier ways of obtaining oil, and it leaves its former subsidiaries, particularly Vacuum Oil and Standard Oil of New York, to negotiate with the Soviets on a more commercial basis.
Clearly, trade relations will not cease between Rockefeller and Russian revolutionaries trained in urban guerrilla warfare in its factories before moving to conquer power in Russia or then with Stalin so that the Second World War lasts as long as possible as we shall see.