Part 3 – The History of Conflicts

Monastic organizations found medieval culture

The Druidic conception of Christianity.

updated october 11, 2018: are added extracts from the book ” Les mystères templiers ” by Louis Charpentier, at Robert Laffont, Les Énigmes de l’Univers, 1967.

At this point in our remarks, we can indicate to our reader, that the continuation of this story was told in our online novel “D’Éleusis à Dendérah, l’evolution prohibition”. These are the texts about the Nancy conference when Pierre explains the origins of the movement he wants to set up. We summarize it here and link to it for further information.

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Monasticism in Europe: “Flower of the East and soil of the West”…

source: https://www.cairn.info/revue-les-cahiers-de-l-orient-2013-3-page-49.htm#

paragraphs 31 to 33:

The beginnings of monasticism in 335 in Trêves

Born in the East, he was introduced to the West at the end of the 4th century in the form of eremitism and monasticism. Its development owes much to the all-oriental influence of five figures of the 4th and 5th centuries. First in 335, with the arrival in Trêves of the Patriarch of Alexandria Athanasius, accompanied by some monks, following an exile imposed by Constantine. Their coming led to the foundation of a community that would be known by St. Martin, and then to the translation by Evagora of Antioch of the Life of St. Anthony, the first of all hagiographies, written by Athanasius. In turn, St. Augustine (354-430), Bishop of Hippo, wrote a rule that consisted of both concrete commandments and spiritual considerations. Then came the monastic experiments of John Cassian (v. 360-v. 435), of eastern origin, within Palestinian and Egyptian monasticism; Finally, there is that of Honorat, bishop of Arles.

Benedict of Nursie Father of the Western monks

A monastery was first established in Italy, in Rome, then in Aquileia, where Rufin and Jerome stayed in 370. Benedict of Nursia (died 547) is the Father of the Western monks.

Saint Martin de Tours

In Gaul, the movement was initiated by Saint Martin of Tours (316-397), contemporary of saints Antoine and Pacôme. A hermit, a traveling evangelist, he founded small communities of monks and founded the Marmoutier Lavra near Tours. It is imitated throughout Gaul. Others will follow closely: Honorat, Bishop of Arles, who founded around 400 the monastery of Lérins; and Jean Cassien, who founded around 416 the abbey of Saint-Victor of Marseille comprising two monasteries (men and women). He left an important written work: the transmission of the Apophtegmes of the Fathers of the Desert as well as doctrinal works, including the Institutions and Conferences, works dedicated to monastic life, which have profoundly marked Western monasticism since the 5th century, mainly as one of the sources of the rule of St Benedict.

In Ireland the monks are more concerned with action than contemplation

Ireland developed a particular tendency, in which monks were more interested in action than contemplation, with an important role given to preaching. In the 6th century, Irish monks traveled through Western Europe, which, at the end of life and the beginning of the 7th century, still had many pagan lands to convert. Two models: St. Patrick (died 461), the founder of many monasteries in Ireland, and St. Columban (died 615), who disseminated a monasticism based on penance and mortification.

The West will defy wandering monasticism; we will encourage first, then we will impose stability. Already, before Saint Benedict, Jean Cassien in 420, in his Cenobitic Institutions [20][20]Translated from Latin by Jean-Claude Guy, Paris, Éditions du Cerf,… criticizes this way of life. The Council of Chalcedon (451) imposes the obligation of monastic stability, in other words the stability of the place, which was later confirmed by the Second Council of Nicaea in 787. Examples are not rare of these men who left monasteries to turn to eremitism, actions considered as acts of desertion. The Council of Agde (506) then the Rule of St Benedict will only allow the monk to choose eremitism after a long stay in a monastery.

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The Jewish Refugee Community in the Narbonne Region

“Through the great invasions and the fall of the Roman Empire, the Christian religion continues its development thanks to the strength of its spiritual message which emancipates the populations from the old fears and superstitions towards the gods and the demigods. The Jewish refugee community in the Narbonne region participated in the events by trying to recover in Rome the fruits of the plunder that the legions had made in Palestine and during the destruction of the temple of Jerusalem. This community has certainly kept intact the level of knowledge that the group of initiates of Jerusalem had reached in the time of John the Baptist, Jesus and the community of Essenes on the shores of the Dead Sea. Like the early Christian communities, this community sought the alliance of power with the new Merovingian leaders. The distant goal was to use this power with the prospect of one day returning to Palestine to establish a new kingdom of Judea and also, in a first stage, to recover what may have survived from the destruction of Jerusalem: fleeing treasures with scrolls and secret knowledge. It is likely that this quest led the popes in Rome to seize the parchments and writings preserved at the abbey of Mount Cassin which, in any case, contradicted the dogmas they had set up and the history of Jesus.

The Merovingian period and the Christianization of the kingdom

The Merovingian period (circa 480-750) was characterized by Frankish kings who copied the functioning of the Roman Empire while keeping their Germanic traditions in the management of power: their country belongs to the royal family and is divided into as many heir sons as the king had. They enjoy the luxury of the Roman era, and use slavery extensively for the functioning of the economy and trade with foreign countries. To administer their kingdom, they must use the skills of the bishops and the Christian church, and little by little, there is a Christianization of the kingdom.

The descendants of the royal family are unable to challenge the fragmentation of the kingdom with each inheritance that thus loses its power. This typically Germanic rule, linked to the management of tribes and communities, makes the military victories gained in the conquest of other territories useless and ineffective. The family model of networked organization is becoming very inadequate to govern ever-larger geographic areas. In order to preserve these conquests, another way of governing is necessary, especially if the rulers want to regain a dimension comparable to the ancient Roman Empire. Christian influence also weighs on organizing people in peace and solidarity, or at least in submission to the power of the Pope of Rome and the Church.

The Frankish kings and the creation of the pontifical state around Rome

When the Carolingians seized power (around 750-1,000), they too sought to accommodate the favors of the papacy. The Carolingian kings and their administration were trained by the monks and they understood that the development of their kingdom required new abbeys capable of developing agricultural and real estate wealth while providing education, health services and land management. The leaders of the Benedictine movement were then able to use this example of political, economic and social success to apply it to the papacy. Rather than leaving the popes and their administration to write dogmas to impose them on European kings, it was better to occupy them in the territorial management of a domain. Thus, the Frankish kings initiated the creation of the pontifical state around Rome and Charlemagne was crowned emperor in Rome by the pope in the year 800. The Carolingian period as the previous one, the Merovingian period and the Roman empire are in reality systems of military power. The Carolingian kingdom will also end up in a significant fragmentation as each warlord will receive or take a local territory in his possession: it will be feudalism.

The Benedictines use ancient knowledge to found a Christian culture.

The Benedictine movement created from the abbey of Mount Cassin in the year 500 had developed.

An example: in Baume-les-Dames, the Benedictine abbey was founded in the 4th century, thanks to Saint Germain, bishop of Besançon.

Around the year 700 the daughter of the Duke of Alsace Odile had made her spiritual education in this abbey before returning to Obernai and becoming abbess of the monastery of Hohenbourg founded by her father. Odile speaks of Christ, but when she speaks of a human character, it is first John the Baptist. She founded other monasteries and abbeys in the plain of Alsace as well as on the Lorraine side of the Vosges.

Cluny preserves the ancient manuscripts of Mont Cassin

In the 800s, the Benedictine monks built the abbey of Baume les Gentlemen in the south of the Jura from where in 909 the Abbé Bernon and some monks left to found Cluny.

It was at Cluny that the Benedictine monks decided to transport the ancient manuscripts of Mont Cassin to keep them away from the threat of the popes who sought to destroy them in order to protect the dogmas they had established.

Cluny, the marriage of past traditions

” Under these 30-meter-high vaults of Cluny, the monks began to marry past traditions:

  • puce rouge from the Hebrew branch with Moses, David, Solomon
  • puce rouge from the Greek branch with Pythagorean and Platonist knowledge
  • puce rouge Muslim branch also, branches that at Mount Cassin worked Benedict of Nurcia and his order
  • puce rouge from the Celtic branch then brought by the Christian druids with Pelage, Patrick, Colomban then later Malachie

The Christian tradition was formed in Cluny and a materialist knowledge spread to translate daily the principles drawn from the divine and spiritual knowledge available for the time.

Benedictine rules are based on the prescriptions of Benedict of Nurcia, who himself adhered to the Cenobite rules transcribed by Pacomius, who lived as a hermit in front of the temple of Denderah and who, following John and Antony, tried to save the teachings of the priests of this oldest Egyptian temple.”

Source of this passage: Les Mystères Templiers, Louis Charpentier, at Robert Laffont, collection les Énigmes de l’Universe, 1967, chapter La lignée, pages 67 et seq

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Benedictine monks know the knowledge of the temples on the banks of the Nile

“Many of these monks knew the history of Nut and Horus, the history of Devaki and Krishna.

They knew the list of gods born of a virgin: Krishna, Gautama Buddha, Indra for Asia; for the Middle East: Zoroaster, Adonis, Attis, Mithra born of a virgin in a stable on December 25 around 600 BC and whose resurrection was celebrated at Easter. Even the Roman Empire had one of its primitive saviors, Quirinus, born of a virgin.

Juda de Gamala

Many monks had to smile when they compared the introduction of this legend in Christianity around 150 and 180 and the ancient texts of the Roman, Jewish, Essenian, Greek and Aramaic authors telling the story of Judah of Gamala, the man of Galilee, hero of God who called Israel to insurrection, had coins bearing the word Republic minted, organized his territory of Israel on this organization and elaborated a doctrine in which God alone was the king of the people elected as in the time of Moses.

This Judah of Gamala had with Mary sons who were named by order of birth: Jesus and Thomas the twins, Simon Peter and James, children raised by Zebedee at the death of Judah of Gamala killed by the Romans and at Mary’s remarriage with him in order to safeguard the royal lineage of David.

They knew that Jesus was not the first to institute the rite of the Last Supper and to bring to life the mystery of the transsubstantiation of bread and wine into the body of Christ, that Moses and the high Egyptian priests were celebrating the same rite. They knew the human history of Jesus and had read Roman chroniclers such as Flavius Joseph before other ecclesiastics in Rome expelled from these manuscripts all these details compromising for the holy history, a holy history which was to serve as a legitimacy for the expansion of papal power.

Irénée, bishop of Lyon, wants to ban individual initiations

These monks had in their hands the ancient texts saved by Benedict of Nursia, they had been able to read the manuscripts saved by others of the autodafes.

They knew that Irenaeus, bishop of Lyon around the year 2000, was already calling for the prohibition of individual initiations, celebrations like those of Eleusis, because these practices prevented the development of a system of religious power from the bishops and capable of controlling the spiritual knowledge of each Christian community. The priests of Denderah had never asked for such measures in their network organization.

These monks, too, sought to trace the Hebrew branch back to the Law of Numbers, the Golden Circle of Upper Egypt built in Denderah, the oldest Egyptian temple restored for the first time by Cheops, in front of which Pacoma had founded their Cenobite rules and they clung to one of the last representatives among the Jews of this Pharaonic kingdom: Solomon.

Like the ancient priests, they sought to rediscover the knowledge lost during the assassination by the Hyksos of a king of Thebes guardian of the initiatory rites for the intromission of the pharaohs, King Sekenenre Taâ II assassinated by the one who had the Egyptian name of Apophis.

Thebes is the closest town to Denderah and in fact, the military power guardian of this original sacred place. In this lost knowledge, it was a question of bringing to the divine life the one who would then have the human charge of pharaoh, that is to say of representing God to serve as a bond between the Creator and humanity.”

Source of this passage: Jesus or the secret mortal of the Templars, Robert Ambelain, Robert Laffont, collection les Énigmes de l’Universe, 1970.

Cluny then Cîteaux develop the marriage of cultures from ancient knowledge.

But the monks did not have in their hands all the documents and they had to resolve to mount an armed expedition to send some of their own to Jerusalem and the Holy Land to find under the Holy of the Saints of the Temple, the missing link to their knowledge.

After Cluny and the marriage of cultures in a new European culture, after the adoption of the Arabic numerals instead of the Roman numerals to develop the works of geometry and architecture, it was at the abbey of Cîteaux that the journey towards ancient knowledge was completed. The origins of this movement lie in the Irish branch of Christianity and the Order of Saint Columban.

The Irish branch of Christianity and the Order of Saint Columban.

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The entire Celtic, behind its Druids, rushed towards Christianity. But quickly disillusioned as soon as Christianity, in the hands of the German kings and their bishops, became an instrument of serfdom. Ireland, which had escaped the Roman conquest and then the barbaric conquests, remained Christian but, so to speak, “Druidically”. …/… Little wonder, then, that the “Druidic” conception of Christianity has returned from Ireland. It was brought to the Gauls mainly by Saint Colomban and with the – sensitive – support of a Benedictine pope: Gregory I, Saint Gregory the Great. …/… In Gaul, Colomban founded around the year 600, Anegay, Luxueil, Fontaine.

…/… In Gauls, the place is clear. Everything was destroyed. No surviving tradition has enough strength to even try to assert itself. We are quite far from Rome and its disputes over influence for clerical power. Finally, the unity of power is far from assured and one can indulge in hide-and-seek between kingdoms, duchies, counties.

Western civilization is based on three foundations: the revelation of Christ, classical intelligence and Celtic matter.

And the “head” of the Benedictine Order will play hide and seek for five hundred years. In 590, a Benedictine became pope. Gregory I the Great, Saint Gregory, established the first Gregorian ritual. And Gregory will play the instrument that St. Benedict forged. And also, in part, what Colomban brought him. …/… Already, the three foundations on which Western civilization will be built stand out: the revelation of Christ, classical intelligence and Celtic matter.

The Christian revelation brings with it an enormous contribution of Hebrew tradition, which will, moreover, diminish, from the early Judeo-Christian Church which still demanded that not a letter of the Judaic law be changed, including circumcision, to the Church of the Middle Ages which will retain only the Gospels and Saint Paul, and again..

The Greek tradition will, on the contrary, be strengthened as it becomes better known, especially under the influence of the Islamic schools of Cordoba and Toledo. (Which will bring vestiges of the knowledge coming directly from the temples of the banks of the Nile and the Euphrates, just as the Greek temples kept that of the banks of the Nile. The remains of the knowledge of the temple of Denderah, the divine laws and the celestial mathematics, the mystery of the Apocalypse and the Atlantean origins of the followers of Horus, were transmitted by John, Anthony, Pacome and collected by Bernard of Nurcia in the year 500 in his abbey of Mount Cassin, ed.

The Celtic tradition, on the other hand, flourished from all sides, brought back, from the first contacts with matter, by, it seems, the ancestral memory. The stone people will find a certain lapidary magic of the ancestors.

Gregory I, Saint Gregory

In any case, Gregory I, who is beginning this synthesis, seems to have had an extraordinary intelligence and an extraordinary foresight. Its importance in the flowering of medieval civilization is considerable. He is too learned to ignore that the gap between Druidism and the Christianity of his Benedictines is only formal. It is almost enough to juxtapose one to the other, by inflecting the form, without it being necessary to inflect the mind.

To achieve this fusion, he created the Gregorian ritual whose magical action is profound on men. And he has at his disposal the whole body of learned monks formed by St. Benedict. It will be his missionaries near the barbarian chiefs, the bishops who are no less, and the people almost reduced to the wild. It is on the Gauls that he leaves his civilizers.

One of his greatest merits was to understand that strength, in some areas, is of no value. He thus took the foot of Martin, this Pannonian operating in the Gauls, who destroyed the temples and sacred Druidic stones.

Destroy idols but not temples

I decided, said Gregory, that it was not about destroying the temples of the gods, but only their idols.

But the Druids, no more than the Celts, had no idols, and Gregory did not ignore it. The only idols were Roman. And their destruction certainly did the Gallic people no harm.

Religiously, the Gauls had only sacred places marked by trees or stones not cut to any human appearance. To admit their places was to openly admit the basis of Druidism in the Catholic Church. And the monks settled in the holy places of the Gauls.

The Benedictine convents have taken over the place of Druid colleges

They settled there as missionaries to civilize the rulers, to make the clergy religious, to educate the people. In fact, why not see things as they are: the benedictine convents have taken over the place of druidic colleges, guardians of the ritual, advisers to the great, instructors of the peoples.

Monks defend themselves against bishops, kings and lords to remain independent.

The affair was conducted for several hundred years with a constant will and an address worthy of admiration. The monks had to defend themselves against the bishops who intended to rule them and have them under their control. They had to defend themselves against kings and lords who wanted to appoint abbots to reserve the “profits.” They were able to capitulate here, to stand still there, even if it meant letting the abbeys put in “order” perish

The process of “development” of an abbey is always the same: to cultivate land, to build, to teach. Each “house” becomes a nursery for farmers, masons, carpenters, various craftsmen and clerics, those clerics who will lead the seigneurial administration and will be the first “teachers” of the people.

The movements of the “learned head” of the Benedictine Order.

It is curious to follow, in history, in correlation with political or military events, the movements of the “learned head” of the Order. Always – always – beyond the reach of royal power. The scholars of the Order intend to work in peace, with their own abbots, and not those imposed by the power.

Summary of these trips:

After the Lateran with Grégoire I, the “learned head” passes to Fleury-sur-Loire, at the junction of France, Burgundy and Aquitaine. After having saved the precious manuscripts which were then the most complete classical treasure at the time, from the fire of Fleury and while the Frankish kings conquered Aquitaine, the “head” passes to Saint-Seine in Burgundy, the sovereigns being no doubt more understanding towards the Benedictine Order.

Saint Benedict of Aniane

To escape the Carolingian hold, Abbé Witizza travels to Catalonia, near Montpellier, to Aniane where he takes the name of Benedict. He will be Saint Benedict of Aniane. It is there that he definitively joins the orders of Saint Benedict and Saint Colomban, already very close, into a common rule, of which one leaves, very intelligently, any power of application to the abbots, according to the regions. (This is the practice of subsidiarity and the alliance of opposites, organizational principles already taught in the temples on the banks of the Nile and in Greece.)

The next steps were Glanfeuil, Saint Savin sur Gartempe, Saint Martin d’Autun (880). From there, Bernon, who carried with him more than nine hundred learned manuscripts, carried this “learned head” to Gigny in the Jura from where he was soon to return, with twelve monks on a land given to Cluny by Charles III of Burgundy. Cluny remained the “learned head” of the Order until the Crusades.

Source of this passage: Les Mystères Templiers, Louis Charpentier, at Robert Laffont, collection les Énigmes de l’Universe, 1967, chapter La lignée, pages 74-80

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The Preserved Knowledge of the Survivors of the Last Great Cataclysm

Albert Slosman in his book on Pythagoras’ initiation to Denderah and in the two other temples that delivered the highest initiation, states that the Egyptian priests advised Pythagoras, once initiated, to go and find the druids of what was left of Thule, the Hyperboreans, druids who had a higher level of knowledge than them.

The Goths, the Iberians and then the Vikings, the Normans are the descendants of the survivors of the last great cataclysm who were able to remain in their region of origin displaced by this tipping of the Earth axis towards the North Pole while the survivors of Atlantis managed with their ships to run aground on the shores of Morocco near Agadir for four thousand years later settled permanently on the banks of the Nile.

All of these survivors, whose countries of origin had disappeared or were no longer viable, undertook migration to find new, more prosperous regions. Each of these new colonies of survivors retained the remains of ancient knowledge and the links between them dating back to the very difficult survival period (four thousand years) that followed the last great cataclysm.

The Benedictines who kept the vestiges of this ancient knowledge since the year 500, knew these links between Denderah and Thule, the druids as well as with India, the Himalayas, China and the Andes of Tiahunaco. The scientific evidence of these interrelations, which never ceased since the date of the last great cataclysm preserved through the Denderah zodiac, was brought in 1992 to Ulm in southern Germany, when a DNA analysis on an Egyptian mummy from 2,500 B.C. revealed the presence of coca in the body embalming products. Coke, according to botanists, can’t grow outside the Andes. A trade route therefore existed between the Andes, China and Egypt. Silk from China was also found on this mummy.

Other books relate these migrations. For the Goths, read The Gothic Mystery, Gérard de Sède, 1976. For the Iberians read Renée-Paule Guillot’s Cathar Challenge. For the descendants of the Atlantes, read Albert Slosman The Great Cataclysm, 1976; And God rose again at Denderah, 1980; The Extraordinary Life of Pythagoras, 1979. These books were edited by Robert Laffont in the collections the puzzles of the universe or the gates of the strange.The development of the Benedictine order in Europe

As for the desire to remain always beyond the reach of power, we find here the antinomy between organizations in networks of life and power system, in this case monarchical power and theocratic power of the Roman papacy.

The Benedictine Order, like its Egyptian, Greek and Celtic roots, develops into an organization of life networks. It uses subsidiarity and the alliance of opposites, complementarity between the three forms of ownership and works knowledge from our two sources of knowledge. Its leaders from the outset of this movement know that their goal is radically opposed to that of leaders of power systems. Their method of avoiding conflict is to place one of their monks regularly on the throne of Saint Peter as pope.

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The monks of Cîteaux and Clairvaux prepare the journey to Jerusalem

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“The monks of Cîteaux established links between the Norman chiefs who conquered as scouts the bases of departure of the journey to the source: Sicily, Malta, and between those Norman sailors who sought in South America the money to finance the trip.

With the money brought back from the mines of Mexico, mines then exploited by the Viking settlers, the monks were able to develop the construction of the cathedrals that attested for Christianity to the rediscovery of the Law of Numbers derived from the divine laws and the celestial mathematics of the Egyptian temples, namely originally held in the temple of Denderah.

Finding knowledge still hidden in Jerusalem

The Benedictine popes, Sylvester II, the pope of the year one thousand, then Urban II set themselves the goal of reconquering Jerusalem and the Holy Land to find a knowledge still hidden there.

Urbain II, former prior of Cluny, once England was conquered by the Normans in 1066 and this according to the plans of the Benedictine monk Lanfranc, professor at the Abbey of Bec-Hellouin, ordered the first crusade in 1096

In 1104, Count Hugues de Champagne made a stay in Jerusalem and on his return in 1108, he confided in Etienne Harding, abbot of Cîteaux. In 1114 Hugh of Champagne returned to Jerusalem and the following year, on his return, he offered the abbot of Cîteaux a plot of land at Clairvaux.

In 1115 Bernard left Cîteaux to found Clairvaux Abbey and in 1118, nine knights instructed by Bernard of Clairvaux came to Jerusalem to search the foundations of the temple of Solomon and found the documents hidden under the Holy of Saints by the Nazarenes and the church of Jerusalem of which James, brother of Jesus was the first bishop.

This community participated in the leadership of the insurrection against the Romans and its documents were therefore hidden with the treasure of the Temple by the leaders of the insurrection on the eve of the destruction of the city. The survivors of this destruction who settled in Europe and mainly in the region of Narbonne, bequeathed to their descendants the secret of this hidden treasure and these families around the year a thousand are at the origin of this policy of return to Jerusalem.”

Source of this passage: Les Mystères Templiers, Louis Charpentier, at Robert Laffont, collection les Énigmes de l’Universe, 1967, chapter Les Crusades, pages 89-96

Excerpts from this book pages 87-88:

« “Now, you have to realize one thing: the Benedictine Order thought, created, built the Roman as a temple for monks. Insiders meet there, not the public. To create a civilization, this is not enough. We need a monument that acts directly.

To act, one needs knowledge of certain occult laws.

Even outside the ritual. In this field, the Monastic Roman, can go no further. To act, one needs knowledge of certain occult laws. It is necessary to know the use of stone that the builders of certain dolmens, the builders of certain Greek monuments, the builders of the Temple of Solomon knew.

Herakles had gone to the garden of the Hesperides, Jason the Golden Fleece; Moses the Tables of Law. The Law is kept in the Ark. The Ark is in Jerusalem.

The workers are ready. Pierre de Molesmes, Benedictine founded Cîteaux. In 1096, Odon de Lagery, former prior of Cluny, became Pope Urban II, launched the crusade.” »

Excerpts from this document pages 89-96:/p>

Excerpts from this book pages 89-96 :

The young shepherd becomes Pope Sylvester II

“The first idea of the crusade, it seems, belongs to Sylvester II, the pope of the year thousand…and Sylvester II had been the Benedictine monk Gerbert. As a young shepherd, he had become a novice at Saint-Géraud-d’Aurillac and had demonstrated highly developed skills as a mathematician and physicist. The Prince of Aragon, at the request of the prior, agreed to take him to his suite in Spain. He had therefore been a teacher in Spanish universities, which at the time could only be Arab or Jewish, either in Toledo or in Cordoba. He was responsible for the introduction, in the West, of Arabic numerals and, probably, algebra. He was an excellent astronomer, inventor of an astrolabe and whose armillary spheres to explain the movement of the stars were admired by his students.

Sylvester II wants to find the Tables of Law in Jerusalem

Sylvester II was unlikely to have wanted to fight with the Muslims, and if he had done so, the Muslims in Spain would have been closer to spear than those in Palestine. What interested him was the Holy Land; And he saw, no doubt, in Jerusalem something other than a Holy Place, the center of the World. A man of vast science and intelligence, he could not have failed to understand the nature of the Tables of Law to which Muslim civilization is perhaps indebted to many.

In any case, as early as Sylvester II, in the year one thousand, Jerusalem is already a Benedictine goal. But that goal will not be explicitly stated until everything is ready.

It is to this preparation that Cluny will devote himself… But the timeline is full of wonderful lessons.

The Benedictine order, under whatever rule it was, had always taken the greatest care to keep its nervous centers away from the grip of the Frankish kings, entrusting itself more readily to the Aquitans, the Catalans, the Burgundians than to the heirs of Clovis. Did they consider them impervious to civilization? This cannot be excluded; it is obvious that these kings will never shine with their intelligence or their moral qualities.

But around the time of Cluny’s creation, a fact is going to change a lot.

Rollon and the Vikings became Christians and conquered Sicily.

For more than a hundred years, the Normans had been ravaging the western lands – and beyond, sometimes. Now, in 913, Charles III, king of France, delivered a part of Neustria to a certain Ganger Rolf, Rollon, Norwegian, so enormous that he went only on foot, in the inability where he was to have a horse that did not collapse under his weight. Rollon, a Norwegian, was not a germain from the plains of overseas Ukraine; those germans had not gone up to Norway. Rollon and his crews were Celts, like the ancient Scandinavians (and descendants of Thule, like the Goths and the Vikings).

When they became Christians, it was not in the same way as Clovis to “enjoy” them. They had destroyed abbeys, they built others. Among them: Bec Hellouin, who taught all the Norman youth including the sons of Tancrède de Hauteville, lord of Cotentin.

And now look at the timeline.

Le Bec Hellouin was founded in 1034.

In 1042, Guillaume de Hauteville, son of Tancrède, occupied Apulia.

In 1059, Robert Guiscard de Hauteville was Duke of Apulia and Calabria.

In 1060, he took Messina.

In 1082, he expelled Byzantium from Italy by Durazzo’s victory over Alexis Komnenos.

In 1085 he was in Syracuse.

In Malta in 1090. And Pope Gregory VII, the scholar who will make the calendar, the Pope of Canossa, who had been the Benedictine monk Hidebrand, promotes, as far as he can, the Norman domination over Lower Italy

And in 1096, the Benedictine Pope Urban II, launched the first crusade.

We must admit that this “illumination” of the road to Jerusalem and the occupation of the “departure bases” by the Normans are really welcome! Meanwhile, the Benedictine monk Lanfranc, a professor at the Bec Hellouin, mounted from scratch the conquest of England by these same Normans in 1066; as if it were a matter of securing the West’s rear against the Saxons who are as mistrustful as the Franks. And, perhaps not without reason after the butchery of monks in Kerleon.

The First Reconnaissance to Palestine

And it is again a Norman – coincidence – who will make the first ” recognition.

A Norman adventurer, Roussel de Bailleul, came from the Two Sicilies and served the Byzantines with his company and conquered Lycaonie and Galatia in 1073. Byzantium, who was suddenly afraid of it, appealed to the Seljucidal Muslims against him, and he was crushed at Mount Sophron. (It is understandable that the crusaders had some mistrust of the Emperors of Constantinople.) At this time, too, the monks “work” Christian Armenia, as if they were trying to manage intelligences there. Let them get it.

…/… After the capture of Jerusalem on 14 and 15 July 1099 …/…

Meanwhile, Etienne Harding, abbot of Cîteaux, prepared his Order for the understanding of a sacred “document” that was to come. …/… And what matters to the Christian civilization was prepared for Cluny, the result of a long labor, is prepared for Cîteaux, will be implemented in Clairvaux and will be implemented by the Temple Organization of Christian Europe (organized in networks of life and not in a system of power, NDLR).

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The rest of the history of the Benedictine Order is combined with the Military Order of the Soldier Monks of the Temple presented in the following chapter.

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