Paternalism source of the French crisis of work

 whole page

 the Synthesis of the book:

Source: the capitalism of heir, the French crisis of the work of Thomas Philippon, the republic of the ideas, Seuil, 2007


At the end of the book, the author quotes a passage of a conversation between Valery Giscard d'Estaing and François Mitterrand December 15, 1995 in which François Mitterrand regrets not having changed the company more. Mitterrand indicates that the reports/ratios remain too much hierarchical, distant. The leaders scorn their personnel. There is no user-friendliness. This conclusion illustrates the throbbing question which crosses this book: since more than one century, this evil is known and yet nothing changed. Before outlining some solutions, the author describes the situation of the family companies and the impact of these bad social relations compared to our neighbors then it analyzes the causes of this dysfunction. It has the advantages and the disadvantages of the family companies then the consequences of this faintness from the economic, social, political point of view.

 The description of the situation:

 The author brushes an objective portrait of the social relations in France while insisting on the idea that we are taken in a vicious circle which feeds and maintains mistrust. What distinguishes France from the other countries, it is the little of satisfaction which the employees draw from their work and the bad opinion that employed and employers have from/to each other. The difficulties of French capitalism reflect that of the company thus in general: one notices everywhere the same incapacity to make emerge powerful organizations where the social relations are based on a reciprocal confidence. The author insists on the fact that it is not a question of the responsibility for a minority of paternalist leaders but which it acts contrary to a system of organization which has its own logic and which must be included/understood like the fruit of a collective history. In this system and this history, family capitalism occupies a central place.

 The most visible behaviors of the paternalist culture are the absence of delegation, the overload of responsibilities at the top, the deresponsabilisation of the base, the difficulties of adaptation and internal promotion. These criticisms is addressed to the French companies but they are even stronger in the organizations managed by the State. These weaknesses are not new: they were the subject already critical of life before the First World War whereas the French economy took down compared to the German economy. The acknowledgment of the failure of French management to create productive social relations reappears after the second world war at the time of the installation of the Marshall plan. Per hour of the rebuilding, the AFAP (French association for the increase in productivity) sending a mission in the United States to include/understand the causes of the variations of labor productivity with France. What does it discover? That the principal delay of France is not technological, but it is concentrated in the human stock management. The American experts sent in France within the framework of the Marshall plan concentrate their criticisms on the heads of undertaking and the owners French. Recalling that the constructive attitude whose proof the workmen in the United States make depends initially on the constructive attitude of the direction, they reproach, in particular, with the French leaders to be opposed to any constructive change, not to leave a sufficient responsibility and an authority to their subordinates. In a general way, the French are not conscious of the direct report/ratio which exists between a high level of productivity and the application of healthy methods as regards human reports/ratios.

 The author uses a certain number of international surveys carried out by cabinets of council. He uses mainly the investigation of the IMD, a commercial school of Lausanne and the investigation of the world economic forum, Total Competitiveness Report (GCR). The row in 2004 according to IME'S of France for the quality of the social relations in the company, is 57e on 60 countries (good last of the rich countries). And, according to GCR'S, it arrives 99e on 102 countries. Only Venezuela, Nigeria and Trinidad make worse… The bad quality of the social relations in France is a characteristic which comes out from all the investigations available, and this in a durable way. This perception is shared by the French in general and the employees in particular. Among the countries of Europe, France is classified last for “freedom to make decisions in its work”, and penultimate (in front of Greece) for “satisfaction in its work”. This pessimism does not affect the whole of the questions. The French are perfectly conscious of what goes well to France and they do not have a particularly negative vision of their life to the General. On the other hand, just like the managers of undertakings, the French employees recognize that there is a specific problem concerning the social relations. There is well there a French exception.

 There are here a logic gaining/loser and this attitude nourishes very distinct opinions on the fundamental opposition between those which direct and those which obey. These hostile attitudes with work are expressed in remarks and stereotypes: “a large hard worker is as well as possible “too good”, in the worst case lackey of the large capital, a moron whom one can exploit “. In the public sector the same applies: “as soon as a professor becomes headmaster, it passes in the enemy camp. Instead of saying “it is one as of ours which succeeded, one will be included/understood better”, they are being wary because it thinks that it passed on the other side of the barrier “. In this design the managers can be happy only by persecuting their employees and the emancipation of the workers can be done only with the detriment of the owners. At the international level, certain countries have the capacity to organize work so that each one finds its account there whereas other countries do not have this capacity. France belongs to the small group of industrialized countries which did not know to develop this capacity.


Historical causes:

 The author indicates that the historical source of this mistrust goes back with the Revolution and the law the Hatter of June 14 1791 which prohibits the corporations, the trade-guild and the working coalitions. It will be necessary to await the law Waldeck Rousseau of March 21, 1884 to legalize the trade associations and the law of July 1, 1901 so that are repealed penal code the articles relating to the offense of association and that the right of association is marked. In Germany and in the countries of North, the history was different and these countries found agreements, compromises between the owners and the employees so that the organization of the social relations can be established. In this French context the history of the trade unionism is particularly difficult and is limited to a virulent dispute of the capacity of the owners. The French State did not support the employees and was hostile with the development of the trade unions. The rate of unionization in France always remained very weak: it was 1,9% in 1910 and of 8,1% in 2001, that is to say weakest of Europe. Spain, before last, has a rate of unionization into 2001 of 16,1%. For the author, the rate of unionization of 1910 shows that the countries struck of trade-union underdevelopment before the First World War seem well to be those which today have bad social relations. Among the countries of Europe, Germany, Switzerland, Holland and Austria facilitated the development of the professional organizations and have today co-operative relations between employees and employers. In the same way, the Scandinavian countries arrive largely at the head today at the level of the rate of unionization and they belong to the countries where the social relations are the best and where the standard of living is largely higher than that of the French employees.


Advantages and disadvantages of the family companies and paternalism

 All the industrialized countries were struck by social misery, the strikes and the industrial disputes to the First World War. If repression were the first response of employers, very quickly the employers realized that it was to better use of the more peaceful relations and to set up a paternalist style of direction. This paternalist approach which consisted in improving the working conditions, housing, health, quickly alleviated the social conflicts. The author explains that the paternalist one initially was born in the United States. Family capitalism was quickly confronted with the growth of the companies and the family leaders had to be surrounded very quickly of professional managers with whom they shared their capacity. In Germany and France, the great industrial families also build houses, trade, schools and medical centers for their employees. Systems of retirement and insurances against the industrial accidents are set up. The family and the patriarchal authority are thus in the middle of the paternalist approach. The company is presented as a family whose owner is the father. It takes care of the family of the workman whose paternal authority is made profitable so that his/her children start to work with the factory. It is a question over all of sitting the authority of the owner, of ensuring the adhesion of the workers and of discouraging the militancy. It is the positive aspect of paternalism: to avoid the social conflicts and to maintain a certain peace social.

 The paternalist strategy of management of the industrial disputes thus seems to have been universal towards the end of the XIXe century. However it evolved/moved then differently according to countries'. Indeed, at the beginning of the XXe century, the management of the large German and American companies professionnalise. In England and especially in France, management is mainly family and the economic performances feel some. The American historian Chandler sees a direct bond between the family of British and French capitalisms and the family management which deprives the companies of the capacities necessary to the exploitation of the economies of scale characteristic of new industries of the time. On the contrary, “in Germany and in the United States, the contractors made the investments in infrastructures and a personnel necessary to exploit the outputs of scale. The contractors shared soon the management of the firms with the managers whom they themselves had recruited”. The bankruptcies of French management do not pass unperceived and feed rancours of the workmen. The workers' delegates with the Exposures assist, dismayed, with the extraordinary development German and American and they blame the bad management of French capitalism. Michele Lamont notices that “the fascination of the capacity was often put in relation to the structure of the traditional company French, with her centralized authority, her fine divisions between the layers and the units which operate, and her preserving and careful management up to low the level”. The day before the second world war the French economic system was also again in crisis and one spoke once more about the decline of France.

 After 1945 it is the bureaucratic phenomenon, to take again the expression of Michel Crozier, who defines best the management of the large companies. There are similarities between paternalism and the bureaucratic phenomenon. The bureaucratic phenomenon played a part determining in the continuation of the bad working relationships in France. Family capitalism and bureaucratic capitalism are two modes of organization which bring, each one with its way, a response to the fundamental problem of the authority and co-operation in the working relationships. In the family and paternalist model, the functional authority is identified with the patriarchal authority which gives him its legitimacy. In the bureaucratic model, the authority is converted as much as possible into impersonal rule and the same structures of the organization seem arranged so that a sufficient distance can establish between people who have to make decisions and those which are affected by these decisions. The bureaucratic organization solves the problems created by the distrust of the French towards the relations of direct authority, “since the existence of impersonal rules and centralization at the same time makes it possible to preserve a design absolutist of the authority and to eliminate all the direct relations from dependence”. According to Michel Crozier, “the bureaucratic system of organization constitutes the best possible solution of contradictions from which the French as regards authority suffer”. Family capitalism also constitutes a solution with these contradictions, a solution which is, by certain aspects, more flexible and more effective, but which can also become a factor of blocking. In Germany and in the United States, countries where confidence between managers and employees is rather good, the organization of the company are selected according to economic criteria's. In France and Italy, the organization of the company is selected to protect the individuals from/to each other. That supposes a meticulous definition of the tasks and statutes, so that each one can be withdrawn from arbitrary other.

 On the level of the disadvantages of paternalism, the French bureaucratic organization is not favourable with the renewal of the managerial elites because the role of the leader is severely limited there. In the bureaucratic organization, the leader does not engage the personnel, it cannot return it, it cannot promote his subordinates nor to even contribute to a significant degree to their promotion. This prohibits the development of internal promotion. French capitalism is characterized by a strong circulation of the elites of the State towards the companies is a weakness of managerial internal promotion. The absence of renewal of the managerial elites reinforces the logic of “us” counters “the others”. As the leaders have only one limited experience of the life in the lower levels of the company, they are relatively being wary and tend less to delegate the authority to their subordinates. On the level of the delegation of authority, France is in tail of group, in company of Portugal of Greece and Italy. However when one analyzes data on blooming with work from the point of view of the employees, one realizes that the principal cause of the dissatisfaction is the lack of freedom of decision. The situation hardly changes because we are in a vicious circle. When there is such a large distrust between seniors in rank and employed, promotion is likely to be made show favoritism, sin capital in this system.

 Far from curing the weakness structural of internal promotion, the State rather worsened the things and reinforcing one through existing. The recrudescence of official parachutings is accompanied by a rise on behalf of énarques among the business leaders. In 1993, among the French business leaders, 47% made career in the public office, 21% in company, 24% are heirs, 27% are from Polytechniciens and 23% of énarques (11% in 1985). The figure of 21% relating to the owners having made career in the company is very weak. In Germany, it is 66% and 51% in the United Kingdom. The owners resulting from the public office are on average a little older, but they have especially less seniority in the company than they direct and less professional experience in general. The owners of the foreign subsidiary companies located in France are recruited to 100% by internal promotion. The selection criteria of the leaders are not the same ones in the French and foreign companies. The economists Francis Kramaz and David Thesmar could show that 12% of the companies dimensioned in Paris are directed by former members of ministerial cabinets. Moreover, as these companies are on average very large, they account for 65% of stock exchange capitalization.



 In this context the situation of France east in the middle of a vicious circle. The characteristic of a vicious circle is that it is enough that one of the elements is set up so that the others follow and abound in the same direction. The toughening of the trade unions made difficult the co-operation and the delegation of authority within the companies, but the predilection of French management for the rigid hierarchies and of the prestigious statutes tarnished certainly the image of the leaders and to contribute to the lifelessness of managerial capitalism. As the actions of the State did nothing but reinforce these through existing, each one can note that France has what to buckle several vicious circles. Is it necessary to see there the traces of a particular design of the freedom, which, according to Philippe d' Iribarne, insists on the nobility, the honor and the statute? N.d.l.r: this value of freedom thus perceived is attached to the traditional source of capacity, it is in dissonance cognitive with the value of rational freedom wanted by the revolutionists of 1790 who followed the ideas of the century of the Lights.  This disagreement on the reading of the word “freedom” summarizes with it only the depth of the ditch which separates the leaders from the employees, the minority with the capacity of the remainder of the citizens and since more than one century, the obligatory courses of philosophy to the college do not have them also nothing changed: each camp remains inflexible in its reading of the values of the republic and it is certain that it is professors to put good notes to the best pupils of each reading of the value freedom, by respect of academic conformism and probably by bureaucratic respect of the value of freedom it even, without operating the least choice of company, without any training of the responsibility citizen.

 From the economic point of view, the bureaucratic model fell in disuse, at least in the private sector, and the State disengages organization of the economy gradually. Family capitalism, on the contrary, goes well and seems to play the part of blue-chip stock opposite the refusal of liberalism. There are two approaches distinct from family capitalism. The first refers to the control of the shareholding, when a family has a significant part of the voting rights related to the actions of a company. The second refers to the management of the companies, when the company is directed by a member of the family of the founder. There is an important difference between the two: the situation is worse when it is a heir who directs and less bad when it is a professional who directs beside the family. The paternalist strategy made it possible the family companies to obtain a comparative advantage to regulate the social conflicts of the XIXe century by stressing the wellbeing of the employees, this strategy made move back the trade unionism and reduces the industrial disputes. On the whole, the Welfare state replaced the employers deprived for the assumption of responsibility of the sickness insurance, of the pension funds, for the construction of the schools and the hospitals. When one studies the bonds between capitalism family and social relation within the companies on the level of industries and between the countries, it is possible to show that there are indeed more family companies in the countries where the social relations are hostile. In the same way in the companies and industries where the part of work is largest, there are more family companies. It is the case of France and there are much more family companies in industries where the factor work is more important, in the sector of the distribution and they are less present in industries where the capital factor is dominating, like heavy industries.

On the plan of the labor market: on a company scale family capitalism does not generate particular hostility. The social relations in France are as bad in the public administrations and companies as in the private companies. Actually there is less of conflicts in the family companies than in the other companies. The economist David Thesmar shows that in France the family companies offer to their employees a form of insurance against the risk of job loss. The family companies lay off less than the others in the event of reversal of economic situation. In return the employees accept lower wages, which explains, at least partly, the rates of profit higher than one observes sometimes in the family companies. In a more general way, as the family is attached to the survival of the company, it tends to ensure a careful management, with a weak debt and a taking risk less. For the workers already employed in TDCI in the company, that means future more stable than elsewhere. The family companies thus have an approach of the recruiting and dismissals different from those of the other companies. The family companies tend definitely more to discourage the trade-union representation. This fact the family companies are well armed to evolve/move in an environment where the social relations are difficult. They are well adapted to a hostile environment. The French case can be thus interpreted: the social relations in France are exceptionally bad and the companies adapt as they can. Family capitalism would be the best possible system taking into account French specificities.

 On the level of the communication and management: on the other hand the human stock management is particularly antiquated in the companies where the leaders are heirs. These managerial deficiencies explain a significant share of the differences in productivity between the French and American companies. The paternalist practices limit the emancipation of the workers, they solidify the reports/ratios of classes within the company and from this point of view, they remain a factor determining of the bad social relations in the long run. In particular family capitalism is likely to reinforce a throbbing defect of French capitalism: lack of renewal of the managerial elites. Hereditary family capitalism poses another problem: the wars of succession is common as soon as the number of heirs becomes too large and to choose a heir to direct his company to the detriment of an other more qualified person, it is posted its mistrust with respect to the remainder of the company by privileging the family relations. This strategic choice has an impact on the economic performance and the mode of management. The countries where management is selected on purely professional criteria are countries where the authority is deputy within the companies, and the countries which privilege family management are those where the authority remains centralized. The Anglo-Saxon countries and the countries of the north of Europe are characterized by a professional management and a strong responsibilisation of the intermediate levels. The Mediterranean countries preserve a family management and centralized hierarchical relations.

 Michele Lamont notes that the Americans stress more the team work than the French: “in the world of American work, user-friendliness is the key of integration: to help his/her collaborators, whatever they are, to feel with their ease seems a crucial task. ” Moreover, “insofar as the foreseeability of the behaviors is essential with the walk of the large organizations, the executives take care to avoid to the maximum the conflicts there”. It is perhaps this culture of company which explains the success of the American companies near the French employees. Among the companies where it is good to work in France, there are few French companies: 5 out of 20 whereas there are 12 American companies in the 20 first. The workers prefer to work in the companies coming from country where management is professional and where there is a larger delegation of authority. One can thus speak about a comparative advantage of certain countries in terms of quality of management. These countries more easily make emerge from the powerful organizations where the work of each one is developed. In France, too often, “the executives know that they will never reach the top: the majority fall asleep, and some, more undertaking, from go away”. Nd.l.r: luckiest go in the French subsidiary companies of the foreign companies but they are condemned in theory to more be able to return in a family company, especially if it directed by a heir and the cabinets to recruitment do not forget to specify it with these candidates: their files frighten the paternalist owners because they know some too much about the manner of better directing a company. Personally, we were entitled to this laconic and final remark at P.A. Consulting Group, company with which we had been in close cooperation for several years through the use of the test of recruitment P.A.P.I.

 On the level of the growth: the conservatism and the rigidity of the hierarchies are powerful barriers to the growth especially when the companies must adopt new technologies. This point is particularly Net in SME. It is well-known that France misses innovating SME: “France knows a deficit of companies of average size, cash from 50 to 500 paid, of which it rises an insufficient number of mini the French groups from 500 to 3000 having paid. ” The owners of SME complain owing to the fact that the large companies balk to buy new products. Why? An often quoted reason and that Mr. Dupont, as an individual purchaser, is ready to take risks and to buy new products, but that this same Mr Dupont, as a framework in a great group, seeks before very not taking risks. Here are which is typical hierarchy rigid: it limits the initiatives and the takings risk individual. We find here the fundamental distinction between the individual attitudes and the collective performances: a company is not the sum of the individuals who make it up. A badly managed company can transform individuals open and undertaking into small petty and apprehensive bureaucrats. The negative effects of the lack of individual initiatives thus do not limit to the great groups themselves, but flash back on all the economy.

 As regards the social aspects: the immediate consequence of the bad social relations in the company is of course to make the workers dissatisfied. The history does not stop there: there is a whole procession of indirect effects, whose first is unemployment. The rate of unemployment increased the most in the countries where the social relations are conflict compared to the countries where historically they are normally co-operative. Mistrust between managers and employees creates a overcost as a tax or a premium of dismissal would make it, with the difference close this cost is truly lost for everyone. This overcost depresses the application for a job of the companies and decreases employment. Today the capacity of adaptation and anticipation became the key to success of the organizations. The old mode of organization was relatively not very intensive in human relations whereas the new one is much more. The third industrial revolution is characterized by the increased importance of the human capital and it returns the co-operation within the company more crucial than ever. When one compares satisfaction in employment between the countries of the north of Europe which have a tradition of co-operation and France, one can say for example that the French 30% best paid seem to be satisfied of their work than the 30% of the Swedes the least best paid. The difference between the job satisfaction between the two groups of country strongly increases when one goes down in the salary scale. To summarize, the consequences for the labor market of the lack of co-operation within the companies are: more unemployment, less the employment, less wellbeing for those which have an employment, and harmful effects multiplied by ten for the the least qualified workers. One can finally outline an estimate of the total economic cost of our incapacity to create organizations where the working relationships are productive. The countries where the social relations in work are constructive are on average richer than the others. This surplus of richness would be due partly to the increase in the rate of employment and partly to profits of effectiveness on the level of the companies. To improve the co-operation within the companies can be quantified at several points of GDP.


Solutions put forward by the author:

 The French do not have confidence in their head of undertaking, and, in so far as one can judge some, the tendency is not with the improvement. According to SOFRES'S, in 1985, only 25% of the French expressed their mistrust with respect to the owners; they were 55% in 2005. These relations of mistrust persist since so a long time that one can reasonably doubt the capacity of the companies to improve of itself the situation. The solutions which the author releases are: to support the transmission of SME. Today the transmission in hot line of a company is definitely easier and cheaper. It would be necessary to facilitate the transmission for the executives and the professionals. One second solution consists in financing the growth of SME. On the level of the restoration of the social dialog, there are many proposals. The stake is to create confidence and constructive working relationships within the companies. That raises the question of the place of the trade unions. The State can support a positive evolution of the social dialog but it must initially sweep in front of its door and it must amend of the public office. The reforms which succeed seem to divide certain features, in particular the installation of a simple and clear structure, with a number limited of having levels the decision-making power. That also passes by the development of a government of company and by a real effectiveness of the countervailing powers in particular that of the press and media. Finally the author finishes on education and training. He quotes Michel Crozier: “the system of education of a company reflects the social system of this company and constitutes, at the same time, the average essence to which this system remains”. The hierarchical relations, the centralization of the decisions and the difficulty of working in group is found at the school and the university. The school is well the model to which we refer in our adult life. To learn how to work in group and to take part in the life of an organization should be done as of the youth. Insofar as work in group is most important today in the professional world, it should be it also at the school, the college and the college. The author concludes that one will not durably give the French to work without making work more satisfactory for all. The rebuilding of the human relations in the company is the challenge of our generation, if we want to fight against devastations of unemployment and the under-employment, precariousness, the lack of growth, and if we want to be competitive in the play of the world trade.


Our comments:


We criticized on several occasions on our site the mentality of the leaders who use relational networks to control in our systems of being able while refusing to consider that their systems are with end of breath and that they must discuss again the alternative in network. We also showed the cultural dimension of the insufficiencies of our companies to answer our reasons of living. This book thus comes to clarify the question of the paternalist style of direction which remains very present in France.

 As the author underlines it, the basic problem touches with the lack of renewal of the leaders and the strong presence of the heirs to the head to the companies. This situation comes as of the years 1900, of a lack of growth of the family companies especially at the time where in the other industrialized countries, these companies developed. The description of the situation is perfectly coherent. It is one of the first times where this questioning of operation of our economic and social system uses the statistical methods and takes rational aspect and logic such a marked. From this point of view, we are very satisfied to thus see supporting our points of view by studies, analyzes imparables from the rational and scientific point of view (even if our remarks appear rational to us as much). We often took as example the management of the German companies and we had indicated that the majority of these companies were directed by the best of the executives. This book brings figures which come to consolidate this analysis.

 However this book causes our share of the remarks or critical constructive. First of all on the plan of the historical causes: the starting point indicated by the author is correct but incomplete. On our site, in connection with the revolution of 1789, we showed the made error: the obligation to legitimate the revolutionary capacity by the ideas of Rousseau led to the removal of the intermediate bodies between the State and the citizen. The revolutionists especially did not see that by removing the common property, they prepared the ground with the abusive development of the personal property mainly for the owners of the industrial means of productions. But the origin of faintness is for us much older. The difference which the author emphasizes between the countries of North and the countries of the south of Europe, resides indeed on the fact that the history of these countries is different: in France the organization in network of the time of the cathedrals was destroyed by an absolute monarchy whereas in Italy the capacity of the pope blocked the rise of a centralized capacity; in the countries of North, the organization in network of the time of the cathedrals was more maintained through the orders knights teutonic, the commercial organization of Hanse. This tradition of co-operation was taken again by the protesting movement, the mutual insurance companies often directed by the pastors to come to assistance of the peasants. It is then normal to find it in the rate of unionization, in the practice to put the professionals at the head of the companies, in the development of the training directed by the old ones, the fact that the company begins to recruit these apprentices and allow them for the best to arrive at the general direction. There is indeed there a culture which was prohibited in France and which the countervailing powers did not know or did not want to position back. This tear for more than 700 years has not been closed again, we preserved of them traces through the cathedrals, the restored or surviving destroyed abbeys, the charters of the free cities. We showed the role of Jeanne d’Arc between 1429 and 1431 in the reinstallation of an organization in network with free cities. In Alsace the organization in network was destroyed when the peasants raise themselves in 1525 to remove the abuses the feudal system which was restored after 1307 and the suppression about the Temple and the setting with the variation of the orders knights to the profit of the royal troops. These peasants and middle-class men of the cities which support the values of Protestantism were crushed by the army of the duke of Lorraine on behalf of king de France. The places of the two defeats are known: May the 16, and 17 1525, the troops of the duke of Lorraine kill approximately 20 000 people with Lupstein, Saverne and Neuwiller. May 20, the battle of Scherwiller makes more 4 000 dead among the peasants. These questions then constituted the stakes of the wars of religion between 1562 and 1598 then on the level of Europe, of the Thirty year old war of 1618 to 1648. During 7 centuries, the populations preserved the memory of the flight and of the plundering of the richnesses managed jointly by the monastic orders and knights and they did not cease claiming the reinstallation of a form of property common to the profit of their social groups. We also showed how the nobility to recover these richnesses, which leads in 1790 to the sale of the goods of the clergy in the shape of the national goods. The empire of Napoleon did not settle this question. A new strong signal to show that the domination of the aristocrats did not intend to cooperate with the working world, was the successive massacres of the silk workers of Lyon in the years 1830. We showed to what the working slogan of the XIXe century corresponded: “the tariff or death”. For us, the origins of this tear are clear and clear: it takes the responsibility for kings de France associated with papacy and the integrist Catholicism. To summarize these old roots, the author begins again celebrates it analysis of Tocqueville: “the division of the classes was the crime of the old royalty, and became later its excuse; because, when all those which make the part rich and enlightened of the nation cannot any more get along and help in the government, the administration of the country by itself is like impossible, and it is necessary that a Master intervenes”. Under Ancien Régime, this Master was of course the king by divine right. This principle of administration which consists in making reign the disorder to better be able to impose its capacity then remains obviously of topicality and is found in paternalism: better an owner is worth who directs than of the permanent conflicts and the absence of work. The author at a rate of showing that the trade unionism in this context had a difficult childhood and could not develop. This explains its radical character and savagely opposed to the owner and to the leading class resulting from the middle-class which seized the power in 1789 without cooperating with the remainder of the population except finding soldiers and carrying out battles to defend its particular interests. The author could however have mentioned the many works which relate to the role of the Protestants in the beginnings of the industrialization of France and as we do it, to take the example of the industrial company of Mulhouse which is at the origin of several French international companies which were not impregnated of outrecuidant paternalism. This history remains current and present important similarities: formerly the populations revolted against the return of the feudal system and the return of arbitrary of noble and of the king after having known three centuries flourishing under organizations in network, when the king of France was ruined. Today the employees who knew the Thirty Glorious ones despair and are in anger by noting the stopping of the social elevator, the policies which crush the middle class of taxes and taxes in all kinds, the triumph of daddy's boys and the development of corporatisms and of the occult networks of influence which found new privileges and prohibit the social advancement of the others, in particular of their children, champions of Europe of the unemployment of the young people. They refuse to admit that the paternalist family companies are their only recourse vis-a-vis the damage of liberalism and universalization. To accept this report consists in erasing the social rights of the 20th century, to disavow the fights of our parents, which is contrary with all the family values. To disavow its family to support the richness of those of the owners and the ruin of the country, it of the Crow is not any more mixed with Root, even less of Molière, they are ordinary dramas, suicides with work which consume a company until heat becomes flame and fire a blazing inferno that one extinguishes in blood… as in time. It however possible, in the light of passed today from preparing a future with peaceful but fast and efficient transitions: to make a success of the velvet revolution which French never knew to live, to find new organizations in network.

 The second criticism which we have formulated door on the total evaluation of the negative cost of paternalism in France and the conflict social relations for one century. On our site we used the survey carried out in Germany in 1996 and which had been reproduced in several French reviews. We had said that within sight of this investigation, the cost of the demotivation to work in France was at least about 400 Billion Frank per annum, nap which misses obviously with the GDP. The author at a rate of adding to this overcost of the demotivation, part of the cost of unemployment, the cost of the bad social relations and industrial disputes as well as the cost of the strategic errors carried out per inefficient leaders (for example the estimated cost of the error made by President de multi-media Thomson who refuses to invest in the technology of the flat-faced screens whereas the patents are brought to him by engineers of the Commissariat à l' Énergie Atomique, which made the happiness of Samsung and the Koreans and the Chinese company which took since the control of this French company). The author speaks about several points of the GDP, it does not dare to say what however the French employees included/understood for a long time: the bad management and the gaps of the human stock management in our country ruined our social cases because of level of excessive unemployment on more than 30 years, because of an automation of our means of production which was not efficient because the vocational training remained insufficient and for other reasons evoked in this book, in particular the furious desire of paid of more than 50 years to leave this universe of the work in which, with the age, they are forced to note that they were deceived, maltreated by this culture of the contempt and the car sufficiency posted since of the centuries by the leading elites, quite simply because they had not been born on the good side of the social fracture. Consequently the measurements taken on social protection and the retirements are perceived like particularly unjust and nonfounded even if reforms are necessary to accompany the social and demographic evolutions. In the place of the heirs, the énarques ones, politicians and leaders resulting from the public office, the country needs competences in human stock management and participative management to finally take up this challenge which it refused before 1914, before 1940 and after 1945 and that it always currently refuses.

 To consider this cost total caused by our bad social relations, we can draw the following picture of billion euro: 

GDP 2006

1 792

For memory: 2% of GDP =

35, 84

3% of GDP =




Costing of the fear in the French companies on the basis of the investigation of 1996 in Germany (400 billion francs/an): internal resignation, absenteeism, turn over, alcohol, drugs, moral harassing…


Cost complementary to the bad social relations on the economy, unemployment, the lack of growth, the loss of investments and markets: 2% of the GDP (minimalist estimate).






Comparison with the social deficits and the budgets for the environment and research

Deficit sickness insurance, forecast 2007


Deficit reprocesses general mode, forecast 2007


For the mode of the retirement of the public office, there is no pension fund because the pensions are paid by the annual finance laws and the Pension fund of the agents of the local communities (CNRACL) is currently surplus (2,7 billion euro in the year 2000). It thus finances part of the deficit of other less favoured modes like those of the SNCF, the minors or the craftsmen.

Current expenditure for the environment: 2% of the GDP


Expenditure for research: budget fixed at 2,5% of the GDP either more than currently




These figures give us an order of magnitude, they are minimal estimates. While taking of account the degradation of confidence between 1985 and 2005 (increase of 25 to 55% of the mistrust of paid towards their owners, inquires SOFRES), the figures of the German investigation of 1996 can be transposed to France with a rise bigger than that which we estimated. It jumps to the eyes that the layer of productivity related on the abandonment of the paternalist style of direction and to the development of a participative style of direction is enormous and only suffices for him to make up our social deficits. In the years 1980, the movement total quality succeeded in reabsorbing 2/3 of the non onequality in the production (approximately 200 billion francs/an). This step was based on the network of the quality circles which practiced the methods of resolutions of problems according to the principle of subsidiarity. The starting point of this step was the report humble but serious that according to the rule of the 80/20, 80% of the problems came from the direction and management, mainly of the styles of direction autocratic and paternalist, which had as a consequence the installation of lines hierarchical more punts and fewer and the development of the participative style of direction. But this step to develop the quality of our social relations and the management of our human resources has as a starting point the abandonment and the elimination of the secular taboos and a major Cultural revolution in the operation of the companies as in that of the State. By eliminating these dysfunction and by changing the attitudes and the style management, we can even finance the current expenditure of research and environmental protection.  It is all the more true if we add the savings made by a return to the full employment, by maintains with work seniors until the retirement age and the employment of the young people between 20 and 30 years. If we add a tax on the robots, we understand that our social systems will become immediately surplus, which makes it possible to constitute provisions to deaden the demographic shock. This while remaining within the framework of our system of being able and our social institutions. Since 2003, we insist on the fact that we do not miss richnesses but which we waste much more than the other countries our capacities to develop us because of an obsolete and unjust management.

The direct consequence of this situation implies very an other social policy that that carried out by the last governments. To want privatiser the social security is a thing, it is enough to say it openly to take the responsability for this opening to the hostilities but to work out laws to force the employees to pay for the errors and the egoistic interests of the leading families and the republican elites, represents for the state an obvious complicity likely to legitimate a new revolution. We advise with the militants of the suppression of the assets of Resistance and the Social security, rather than of privatiser and to give to the financial institutions a scandalous revenue, to use the example of the American funds of pension. Admittedly they use the purse to increase their wallets of titles, but at the beginning they are mutual insurance companies: the president is elected by the members and the mutual insurance companies of American civils servant for the moment repurchase the actions of our French companies so much so that the employees of the companies of the CAC 40 also work to pay the retirements of the American civils servant before paying with their taxes, the retirement of the French civils servant then theirs. It is clear that that harms the progression of the purchasing power of the French employees. When one takes the well-known example in France of Calpers, the funds of pension of the civils servant of California, we note today that this mutualist spirit defends of the ethical values and it obliged the GlaxoSmithKline laboratory to lower the price of his anti-AIDS treatment in Africa;  Général Electrique had to change the rules of attribution of stocks options; Calpers required of Tycho to leave the tax haven of Bermuda; RANK XEROX was placed at the head of the least ethical companies by Calpers in 2003 (source: The Express train, May 15, 2003).  We will not continue here this new conflict between the funds of pension to the values mutualists and ethics, and the funds of investments much more aggressive and speculative. To choose its camp is not difficult for which wants the good.

 The development of the organizations in networks which we prepare on our site integrates this radical change in the attitude of our leaders. The solutions put forward by the author are appropriate to us initially because they are directed towards more direct participation in the organizations. Still it is necessary that they are immediately taken again by the political and social actors. On our site, regularly we write that we do not include/understand the passivity, the dumbness of the parties of left like trade unions on the question of the voting rights of the employee representatives to the board of directors or the board of trustees if it is not at the work's council. This guilty silence reinforces the mistrust of paid towards their representatives. If our leaders, including trade-union, do not want to establish this requirement and to take part in the change of management in the companies and the administrations, that they say it openly and resign. There are so much employees, like writes it the author, who understood that they would never arrive at the Management of their company in spite of their competences, that it is with them that returns the right to pose this claim on the table of the negotiations. On this site, we are not their door word, certainly, but several members of our team, among more undertaking, refused to enter family companies and left this typically French universe of scandalously obsolete and ruinous paternalist management. Let us wish, for example, that the concessions which will manage since 2009 the production of the engine cars functioning with the compressed air, not be directed in a paternalist way. In the same way, let us wish that the bureaucratic administration agree to take the risk to pour the premium of no-claims bonus for these cars which does not release from CO2 while rolling to the compressed air. Announced at the basic price of 3.500 euro, this premium of a maximum of 5.000 euro will make it possible to buy these cars at null cost for the consumers. This prospect to regulate quickly the pollution of the cities due to transport, gives a dash of optimism and makes less unbearable the speculation on the rise in the price of the barrel of oil. Let us remain attentive however so that this major progress is not diverted and to stop by the special interest groups oil and financial. To finance to develop it fast concessions of production, not need to call upon the trade banks, with 3.500 euros the car, a protective sacking is enough within the framework to a mutual insurance company or a co-operative to production. If in more these concessions can free, be released from the tax, we do not dream, we put only two feet in the actualization of the time of the cathedrals and in the development of new organizations in networks. We live the time of possible, reason moreover to get rid of the taboos and the yokes of last most sordid.

 We ask that the abandonment of paternalism in our organizations of work be put at the row of immediate and imperative national priority before very called into question of the social rights and all social negotiations. This book once more shows this pressing need for changing management in our country, it is useless to await the following! The distrust towards a part results in the refusal to engage of the discussions as long as a reciprocal confidence is not established. It is urgent that this rule of good direction is complied with and that the attitudes become assertive. Our movement for the alternative in network does not take part in any manner in conformism and the ambient passivity under the cut of our paternalist leaders or others which are tested with the most populist charisma. We have also charisma, as much as some and we were also applauded in public, even after having sung poetry, ours and those of our elder. There is not the question, we must change culture. It is pretentious and conceited to want to make apply countable measurements and reforms which relate only to questions of finances with an aim of saving institutions which legitimate the capacity of the current leaders, when one is unable to change the attitudes and the behaviors of the social groups which cause these dysfunctions, these wastings of human resources. The author did not seek to establish a bond of causality between the paternalism and this hateful practice of the French managers to want to employ only employees between 30 and 40 years. This bond is in conformism, the absence of taking risk about which however the author speaks. Also should be added an undeniable fact: the employees seniors with their competences are also inclined only beginners, to subject itself in front of the contestable authority of a paternalist leader: they frighten the owners before frightening the economists at the shameless cost which they represent for the community because of their forced inactivity.

 On our side, we will continue the publication of our texts on the reform of teaching and the formation to show how organizations in network ensure these stages of the development of human resources and competences. What the author writes will be found in our developments but will suit us much further. A simple recall for our passive and deadened citizens, subjected in conformism to the mode: in Germany and in the Scandinavian countries, the retirement age can be higher than that of France, that poses less to problems bus as from 50 years the employees who became experts in their field and who are paid consequently, become generally trainers in the training colleges and the higher educational establishments to transmit their competences to the following generation if not they reach the general direction their organizations. They do not remain behind their machines in the workshops or their offices to undergo ambient and depressing paternalism, without possibility of internal promotion, by noting during their holidays that their neighbors of Holland until Sweden and Finland (without counting the new Russian rich person, but it is a special case!) a much better standard of living than they have (but not inevitably of culture and courtesy). These meetings replace the visits with the Exposures made before 1914 or 1940 about which the author speaks. In these countries, the executives and technicians, to transmit their knowledge to the students, do not need to pass the contests of professors of university or to accept the precariousness and the contempt of the statute of free-lance. Their wages generally remain with the load of their companies which finance these institutes of research and formation. The report is always the same one and always also overpowering for France.

 Last criticism but not for the author because we know a little the practices of the publishers and their prudence not only paternalist but so servile towards the single thought of the free French elites (which are inevitably the first commercial target of these editors but who also come to read our Web pages…): the editor could all the same have asked the author to indicate when, within which time, he sees the end of paternalism in France after more than one century of incentive to the bad social relations and at least seven centuries of unjustified enrichment serious and citizen. There is indeed more than one change of culture, considering the centuries abused by these policies of domination. 

The answers do not miss but they all do not go in the direction of an elimination of paternalism. The domination of paternalism in our culture with its sempiternal bad social relations causes also a revenge: deprived of 1790 to 1901 of the right of association, French since decades is very implied in the associative world. For a majority of private citizens of internal promotion in the professional life, the success does not pass solely by the money, the capacity and the social position (see the survey Capital-SCA of August 2007). Many considers that one can open out more by serving a cause, small or large, useful for the company. In France, associations and non-profit institutions are particularly many and dynamic: more than one million. Half of French has one day belonged to an association and each year, there is nearly a third of French who is implied in these organizations like giver, voluntary or paid. What is a world record. Many is satisfied to create social bond in the villages and the districts but some lead humane actions of foreground on a world level (Doctors without borders). The problem comes owing to the fact that the authorities prohibited the development of SEL (services of local exchanges), which limits the economic and social dimension of these organizations which must remain obligatorily within the framework it voluntary help without being able to create jobs and richnesses in the noncommercial economy in order to protect the interests from the leaders of the commercial economy and the growth of the inequalities in the commercial economy. Another possible response on the completion date of paternalism is related to the development of the repurchase of the French paternalist companies by the funds of pension and especially these last years by the funds of Anglo-Saxon investments. These funds collect the money of the banks, the insurances, the funds of pension or the billionaires to repurchase companies and to make bear fruit this money through the installment purchase of companies. The reorganization of these companies are often limited to the suppression of expenditure considered to be useless and the wage weight saving and sometimes to technological investments that the former family owners had not realized. Famous technique of the L.B.O. (leverage goal out) is a licit martingale on the financial level which often transfers with the nightmare as regards the social aspects and in France, the list is long companies repurchased by these funds of investment which lost the majority or the totality of their production and their employment which was delocalized in nearby countries to carry out economies of scale or in countries at low cost of labor to increase the margins of profit. When the investments take place in France, they can make increase the benefit of more than 30% but the benefit of the operation are reserved to the owners of the funds of investments. The employees do not benefit from it. Only the paid managers receive million euros for price of their collaboration and their obedience without fault. On this point, we are always in the presence of paternalism and the funds of investments perpetuate paternalism at least with respect to the managers. These managers can reproduce this paternalism with respect to the employees or, like most of the time, use methods more autocrats at the point to start new social conflicts. The shareholders confiscate the totality of the benefit and the employees must subject themselves to very restrictive policies on the budgetary level and very demoralizing as regards the social aspects.

To leave durably and completely this paternalist culture and this tender paid to the interests of the shareholders, we are vis-a-vis the urgency of a policy of civilization. It seems to us that some people start to speak about it in public and on television. They do not have to track the voice of the poet of French language which is expressed here but our voice is not isolated and of the authors, of the economists especially lately, carry words which converge with our movement highly civilizing and humanistic, which is least things for a poet who has to write still much apart from economics and of politics, in particular on the spiritual steps… The readers of our Web site included/understood it since good a long time: to lead the major change and to change the paradigms of a civilization, well before the use of the charismatic source of capacity, it is necessary to have found answers in oneself to dream the world such as it must evolve/move to answer our reasons of living. It is necessary to have undertaken its own evolution before wanting to influence the others so that they change their attitudes and that a negotiation, that a joint resolution of the problems can take place. The author explains well at the beginning of the book that French wants to work and are not annoyed with the value of work. They want only to be entitled to the equitable division of the fruits of their work. We answer them that in the organizations in network, this equitable division functions and gives rise to flourishing civilizations which live social relations founded on a high degree of confidence, and of love and peace. Beside the capitalization of the rights on the companies reserved to the shareholders, we know how functions the capitalization of the social rights reserved to the employees. Since 1850, paternalism savagely fought the installation of such a measurement which radically denies straight to inherit a company to direct it. We will fight so that such measurements are put in place and without inevitably awaiting a new policy of civilization. These social measures carry out us right towards this new humanistic civilization, far from the tyrannical drifts of Anglo-Saxon financial oligarchy and of its liberal ultra thought.


update of January 31, 2008: the bond between paternalism and the bureaucracy and the scandal of the financial losses of the General Company:

Yesterday evening with the 20 hour old newspaper out of France 2, we saw the chairman of the General Company acknowledging coldly which he did not know the trader, its employee, that he had never seen it. We have as known for a few days as this trader had not taken holidays for at least two years and that it is 31 years old seems it. The General Company is a traditional limited company with a board of directors. It is not modern SA with a directory and a board of trustees. The weight of the expert employees in the executive is inevitably weaker bus only one man directs the executive and not a group of four to five directors. We are under the articles in the old French tradition of management. Let us come to the human stock management obviously typically old France it too. How is it made that a chairman located in a tower of Defense in 7 years does not take the elevator to go to at least once greet per annum the team of paid which reports the most benefit to him or is able to make him lose billion (5 billion for the moment)? It is shocking and revolting: the bureaucracy and paternalism share a common point which is explained by the common origin of this attitude of management: the contempt or the ignorance of paid which makes a company. This absence of mark of respect is completely unthinkable in the foreign companies, to start with the American and German companies.

Let us take the example of this American chemical factory along the Rhine, an average size compared to the factories of Schweizerhalle in Basle or Ludwigshafen opposite Mannheim. Vincente, our chairman off the board, came at least every 3 years from States to tighten the hands of the personnel and the workmen. It did not have anything to say the special one, it got out of order to come to discuss, eat, drink, laugh and spend one day with us. If there were bad news, we knew them already and it did not come to hold of the demagogic or paternalist speeches on the direction of the effort and the duty towards the firm. In theory we organized a small festival with our local partners: example: to celebrate the new truck of fireman new bright burning coal that the company offered in gift to the fire station nearest. It was not a philanthropic gift nor free: all knew that this truck came to reinforce the capacity of intervention of the local firemen in the event of important fire with the factory and that this truck was also intended to make a little less jealous the local firemen because the factory had trucks of this type and it was difficult to imagine that the centers of surrounding helps can especially buy such a equipment on the public funds in such a small village. It is only one example. Let us take another example, in this factory of the metallurgy belonging to a German group known good, the chairman came each year to the factory and it discussed with everyone, it received the union representatives with share during one hour and all was put on the table, out of the presence of the Management of the factory. At the end of the day, we found ourselves Direction and members of the work's council around a table in our canteen for a snack with sausages, cheese, wine or beer and we discussed the future of the company and of the factory by imagining all the possible cases, best and worst with forces laughter and jokes and it often had ideas that we do not await him. One year, it had noted that this canteen showed pity. Around the table, he had said to us that the next year he wanted to be received in a true staff canteen. We at once engaged the Alsatian one of Restoration and Marc, his dynamics chairman carried us out this true staff canteen. It was simple direct and our handshakes were cordial, including of course those of the union representatives.

On the level of the management of the paid-leaves, in this chemical factory, each year in work's council we peeled the balances of the vacation not taken of the previous year: the goal was simple. It is a safety measure: in a refinery or a classified chemical factory Seveso, all must be in form, attentive because the least human silly thing can be transformed into explosion and if this fire is not immediately extinguished, the factory jumps and there remain only ashes of the personnel (and it is not certain that the rescuers know quickly to how much people these ashes correspond). In short, all were to take to them 6 weeks of paid-leaves to take care of their physical and especially psychic health. In the electronic company of armament with Sophia Antipolis, we applied this same rule even if the establishment did not have almost any risk to explode, Murène was not charged in explosive. A polytechnician, chief of the research laboratory, had not taken 2 weeks of holidays of not sharpened since many years (more than 5 in any case). The arrears of vacation not taken exceeded 150.000 Frank at the beginning of the years 1990, that is to say the annual wages of a technician. The union representatives were surprised that this question is put about the table. The director was constrained but it was responsibility for the DRH and after negotiation, had done we to him a transfer of 70.000 Frank (our secretary with the signature of this mail had pointed out to us that it was the price of an already beautiful car) and it was to take at least two months of holidays at the end of his project (which was certainly not pain-killer: it was a question of developing the compressor acoustic impulses of the Topex-Poséidon satellite, first world which made it possible to measure the height of the oceans to 2 cm near about 1994 and to 2 mm close today; what made it possible to characterize the climatic El Nino phenomenon and changes mainly in the Pacific Ocean). And we continued in the application of this rule of good direction, with the great relief of the accountancy which could not what make with these arrears of paid-leaves. To return to the General Company, when the factory inspectorate will send to this bank a fine for nonrespect of the law the labor on the paid-leaves? We recruited a trader at the beginning of the years 1990 to manage the military tails of programs with the Arab countries. These sums which constituted advances prior to delivery material (had already been delivered for example the electronic belt of defense of Iraq vis-a-vis Iran: the project leader without employment after the first war of the Golf shared our meals in waiting of a new station) started to report 20% of the profits of the subsidiary company of the group, to occupy itself some as much as it is necessary! The selected candidate was 29 years old and had been in the rooms of exchanges of London, Singapore and Hongkong. He was worn and realisehad realized from there. Its project was to find a company close to Nice for a few years before opening in Nice a cabinet financial councils. The negotiation of remuneration was as tight as out of Stock Exchange. Started with 500.000 frank, we managed an agreement around 380.000 beginning of the years 1990 (we comply with the penal regulation 10 years and we take examples of more than fifteen years). The contract of employment was returned by Management, after the guarantee that this station did not use the classification of employment realized with the Hay method and that within 5 years at the latest this station would be removed after the departure of this young person trader and the delivery of the equipment to the Arab countries… and that no X Telecom was to be jealous of this remuneration, Management agreed to sign this contract whose wages were ridiculous compared to tens of million Frank that this young person trader was going to pay to us (we had already several million while letting sleep this gold mine). This unmarried young man, without sentimental fastener, in a smile, had to acknowledg us that it intended well to also make up for certain lost time in this field, had said we to him to be wary all the same of certain creatures walking on the Riviera! 

In an American firm, the staff does not entrust important responsibilities to a young framework without to have seen and to speak with his wife and if necessary her children… and the woman does not may find it beneficial to be forsaken or maltreated, it is precisely what they want to see to know if this young framework profits from a family balance which will come to help it to recover compared to the intense rate/rhythm of the life of the businesses in which it will be plunged. They are perhaps methods of human stock management basic and incomplete but at least they existed. They can be used as example in a course of human stock management with the college or in the higher education, it is a starting point. The case of the General Company is the perfect counterexample of an absence of serious management of human resources. We repeat it: the absence of GRH and the contempt or the ignorance of the employees are the trademark of the bureaucracy and paternalism. The owner is not any more in his castle but in its office with the closed door, it can have its own elevator inopportunely not to cross its personnel, that very often exists. modifies its positioning, we repeat it and engages resolutely in the eradication of paternalism and the bureaucracy in France. A factory or a company in strike besieged by CRS must require the assistance to Angéla Merkel so that the French law is drawn aside and that the German law is applied in the French social relations, at least it is an intelligent response at present in 2008.

In the book of Thomas Phillipon, the capitalism of heirs, the French crisis of work, page 41, the author takes again the case after 1945 of the Marshall plan during the rebuilding of the country (and one will not arise this kind of speech as no matter what in fact the American bombers and the saboteurs of the resistance very broke! by pity! ). The author quotes the note of Luc Botanski “the American experts envoy in France within the framework of the Marshall plan concentrate their criticisms on the heads of undertaking and the owners French. Recalling that the constructive attitude whose proof the workmen in the United States make depends initially on the constructive attitude of the direction, they reproach, in particular, with the French leaders to be opposed to any constructive change, [...] not to leave a sufficient responsibility and an authority to their subordinates… In a general way, the French are not” conscious of the direct report/ratio which exists between a high level of productivity and the application of healthy methods as regards human reports/ratios ". In 1986 before launching the first quality circles in the factory, at the time of the seminar of Direction, we applied the law of the 20/80: 80% of the problems came from Management or were under its responsibility. As these problems existed since strong a long time, Management was to agree to recognize this situation. Our Director said “yes” clearly and strongly. After this humble and lucid acceptance that it did not only manage to regulate our dysfunctions, we could launch the quality circles to accompany the development by the programmable automats. Did the following year we touch all 2,3 months of gross salary in participation, (the following year more than one half-month because the financial ones had repatriated provisions in States or in Switzerland? , from where the anger of our engineers against the financial ones of the group. ) The pupils, the students as the readers of our Web site learn all that but apparently not our politicians and the bureaucrats from our organizations. In this major conflict, it is necessary to know which will gain! For the moment, more than one billion corporation tax was lost! The European Commission condemns France for its policy which does not settle the question of the deficits! Will it still be necessary to pour million in Brussels? Wasting, still of the wastings and still not of management… the dull plain of the French bureaucracy and some excited in the medium which want that they there are joined.


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